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侯浩,张宋智,关晋宏,杜盛.小陇山不同林龄锐齿栎林土壤有机碳和全氮积累特征.生态学报,2016,36(24):8025~8033 本文二维码信息
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小陇山不同林龄锐齿栎林土壤有机碳和全氮积累特征
Accumulation of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests at different age stages in the Xiaolongshan Mountains, Gansu Province
投稿时间:2015-06-04  修订日期:2016-10-18
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201506041127
关键词小陇山  锐齿栎天然次生林  土壤有机碳  土壤全氮
Key WordsXiaolongshan Mountain  Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata  soil organic carbon  soil total nitrogen
基金项目中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA05050202)
作者单位E-mail
侯浩 西北农林科技大学林学院, 杨凌 712100;中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所, 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
张宋智 甘肃省栎类次生林生态系统重点实验室, 小陇山林业科学研究所, 天水 741022  
关晋宏 西北农林科技大学林学院, 杨凌 712100;中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所, 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
杜盛 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所, 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 杨凌 712100 shengdu@ms.iswc.ac.cn 
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摘要:
以甘肃小陇山林区3个林龄阶段(中龄林、近熟林和成熟林)的锐齿栎(Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata)天然次生林为对象,研究了土壤中有机碳和全氮的垂直分布及其积累特征。结果表明:林地土壤有机碳和全氮含量在各龄级土壤剖面中的垂直变化规律一致,表层土壤中含量最高,随着土层深度逐渐降低。1 m土层范围有机碳和全氮密度随着林龄的增加而增加,中龄林、近熟林和成熟林的碳密度分别为122.92、242.21t/hm2和280.53 t/hm2,龄组之间差异显著(P < 0.05);3个林龄阶段的土壤全氮密度分别为10.37、18.94t/hm2和24.76 t/hm2,差异显著(P < 0.05)。有机碳和全氮密度在0-20 cm土层中占有很高比重,达37%-56%。土壤有机碳与全氮含量呈极显著的线性正相关(P < 0.0001)。土壤有机碳和全氮积累速率随林龄阶段存在差异,在生长旺盛期(中龄林-近熟林)的土壤有机碳(10.84 t hm-2 a-1)和全氮(0.78 t hm-2 a-1)的积累速率要大于成熟期(近熟林-成熟林)的土壤有机碳(1.92 t hm-2 a-1)和全氮(0.29 t hm-2 a-1)积累速率。
Abstract:
It has been reported that soil constitutes the largest carbon pool in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil organic carbon (SOC) in forest ecosystems is considered a major stock of carbon sequestered by vegetation biomass production. Soil total nitrogen (STN) is typically closely coupled with SOC and contributes to ecosystem productivity. Studies on soil carbon and nitrogen in the forests of Northwest China are relatively few. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the carbon storage and accumulation characteristics in the forests of this region, we investigated the representative natural secondary forests of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata in the Xiaolongshan Mountains of Gansu Province. These broadleaved forests are typically found at elevations of 1400-1800 m in this area, the western part of the Qinling Mountains. We selected forest stands of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata at three age stages (mid-aged, pre-mature, and mature), and three representative plots (30 m×20 m) were established for each age stage. Soil samples were taken at three points diagonally across the plot using a soil auger (6-cm internal diameter) at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-50 cm and 50-100 cm. The cored samples from the same depth in each plot were mixed and all samples were then transferred to the laboratory for further analyses. They were air dried and ground to pass through a 0.25-mm sieve prior to the analyses of carbon and nitrogen. In each plot, we also dug a soil profile (1 m depth) and sampled undisturbed soil, with two replicates for each soil layer, using a cutting ring (100 cm3). These soil samples were weighed and their moisture was measured to calculate the bulk density of each layer. The SOC content was determined by the potassium dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation method. STN content was determined using a FOSS-8400 full-automatic Kjeldahl apparatus. Both SOC and STN densities over a forest area were calculated using their contents multiplied by the soil bulk density at each profile depth and soil profile thickness. The results showed the following. (1) Changes in SOC and STN contents along the soil profiles were consistent among the forests at different age stages. The surface soil layers had the highest SOC and STN contents, and they gradually decreased with increasing vertical gradient. (2) Both SOC and STN densities in the 1-m layer increased with increasing forest age. The SOC densities in mid-aged, pre-mature, and mature forests were 122.92, 242.21, and 280.53 t/hm2, respectively, with the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The STN densities in the three age stages were 10.37, 18.94, and 24.76 t/hm2, respectively, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05). SOC and STN stored in the top 0-20 cm of soil accounted for large proportions of the whole 1 m soil, reaching 37%-56%. (3) SOC and STN contents showed significant positive linear correlation (P < 0.0001). In addition, both SOC and STN showed significant negative relationships with the soil bulk density. (4) The accumulation rates of SOC and STN varied with growth periods, and the accumulation rate of SOC (10.84 t hm-2 a-1) and STN (0.78 t hm-2 a-1) during the relatively young period (from mid-aged to pre-mature stages) were higher than the rate of SOC (1.92 t hm-2 a-1) and STN (0.29 t hm-2 a-1) during the mature period (from pre-mature to mature stages).
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