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付同刚,陈洪松,张伟,聂云鹏,王克林.石漠化治理过程中农民参与意识与响应——以广西壮族自治区河池地区为例.生态学报,2016,36(24):7951~7959 本文二维码信息
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石漠化治理过程中农民参与意识与响应——以广西壮族自治区河池地区为例
Investigation of farmer's participation sense and response in the restoration of karst rocky desertification
投稿时间:2015-06-06  最后修改时间:2016-10-19
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201506061147
关键词喀斯特  参与性调查  生态农业  发展模式  影响因素
Key Wordskarst  participatory rural investigation  ecological agriculture  developmental pattern  influencing factor
基金项目国家973计划项目课题(2015CB452703);中国科学院STS计划项目(KFJ-EW-STS-092);2012年中国科学院大学科技创新与社会实践项目对本研究的资助
作者单位E-mail
付同刚 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125;中国科学院环江喀斯特生态系统观测研究站, 环江 547100;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
陈洪松 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125;中国科学院环江喀斯特生态系统观测研究站, 环江 547100 hbchs@isa.ac.cn 
张伟 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125;中国科学院环江喀斯特生态系统观测研究站, 环江 547100  
聂云鹏 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125;中国科学院环江喀斯特生态系统观测研究站, 环江 547100  
王克林 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125;中国科学院环江喀斯特生态系统观测研究站, 环江 547100  
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摘要:
基层农民在石漠化治理中有着不容忽视的作用,但对其态度及参与意愿的了解相对较少。基于参与性调查方法,按不同石漠化程度,对广西河池地区环江县、都安县、大化县33个屯154户居民石漠化治理过程中参与意识与响应进行了调查。结果表明,了解石漠化的农民所占比例较小,且随石漠化程度的增加反而减少。影响农民石漠化治理参与意识的主要因素是农民的文化程度和年龄,但生态示范区内农民参与意识要远好于非示范区。生态农业模式能被多数农民所接受,但因存在成本、农产品销路、技术等问题而实施难度大。政府支持的经济发展模式往往具有经济生态双重效益,但实施过程复杂;农民自发形成的发展模式通常具有收益高及操作简单等特点,但规模往往较小,且受市场影响较大。因此,石漠化治理过程中,一方面需要加强对重度石漠化地区农民的宣传教育,同时充分发挥生态示范区的作用,增加示范区的辐射范围;另一方面,在支持已有发展模式的同时,应重点支持种桑养蚕、手工品加工等农民自发形成的发展模式,并开拓农产品市场。总之,在石漠化治理过程中,政府加大支持力度,科研单位提供技术指导,农民群众积极配合,形成政府-科研单位-基层农民共同参与的石漠化治理模式。
Abstract:
Farmers play an important role in the restoration of karst rocky desertification, but the knowledge about their attitude is little known. In this study, 154 families from 33 villages in Huanjiang, Du'an, and Dahua County, from places of different degrees of rocky desertification, were interviewed based on Participatory Rural Investigation. The results showed that the percentage of farmers who knew about karst rocky desertification was low, and decreases with increasing degrees of rocky desertification. The main factors influencing farmer's attitude of participation were education degree and age, but their participation sense was better in the ecological model zone than in the other areas. Ecological agriculture can be accepted by most farmers. However, it is difficult to perform because of limited costs, sales, and techniques. The economic development models supported by the government always have a positive effect on both ecology and economics, but are hard to perform. The models developed by the farmers are always easy to operate and have advantages of high income, but their scale is always small and affected by the market. Therefore, much needs to be done in the restoration of karst rocky desertification. On the one hand, propaganda and education should be strengthened, especially in areas of heavy rocky desertification. Ecological model zone should play its role and extend its influencing area. On the other hand, besides the support of existing economic development models, the government should strengthen the support of models developed by farmers themselves, such as silkworm raising and manual processing, to exploit the market. Altogether, the Government-Institutes-Farmer model, in which the government strengthens their support, scientific research departments provide technology, and farmers actively cooperate, should be formed to better restore the karst rocky desertification.
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