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黄和平.生命周期管理研究述评.生态学报,2017,37(13):4587~4598 本文二维码信息
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生命周期管理研究述评
Critical review of life cycle management
投稿时间:2015-07-31  最后修改时间:2017-01-17
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201507311622
关键词生命周期管理  生命周期评价  产业生态系统  环境管理体系  产业生态学  环境影响
Key Wordslife cycle management (LCM)  life cycle assessment (LCA)  industrial ecosystem  environmental management system (EMS)  industrial ecology  environmental impact
基金项目中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室开放课题"基于复合生态系统的产业生命周期管理及空间监管方法研究"(SKLURE 2014-2-5);国家自然科学基金项目(41661113);教育部人文社科基金项目(14YJA790013);江西省教育厅科技项目(GJJ14339);江西省经济社会发展智库项目(16ZK15)
作者单位E-mail
黄和平 江西财经大学, 鄱阳湖生态经济研究院, 南昌 330013;中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 hphuang2004@163.com 
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摘要:
生命周期管理起源于生命周期思想,它是生命周期思想在实践中的具体应用,是面向可持续生产和消费,对产品、工艺和服务的全生命周期环境影响进行的综合管理,是解决复合生态系统中结构无序、效率不高和代谢冗余的有效途径,是基于生命周期评价原则与框架的一种环境管理手段或环境管理体系。全面回顾了生命周期管理的起源与内涵,阐述了生命周期管理与生命周期评价的区别与联系,梳理了生命周期管理与环境管理体系的关系。对生命周期管理在产品、企业、行业及城市等层次上的具体应用进行了总结与述评,并对其今后需深入研究的方向进行了展望。
Abstract:
Life cycle management (LCM) originated from life cycle assessment (LCA). It is an environmental management method or environmental management system (EMS) based on the principles or framework of LCA. LCM involves the application of LCA ideas, including comprehensive management of entire life cycles of products, techniques, and services based on sustainable production and consumption. It is an effective route to resolve problems such as structure disorder, lower eco-efficiency, and redundant metabolism in complex ecosystems. The origin and connation of LCM were fully reviewed, the differences and connections between LCM and LCA were examined, and the relationship between LCA and EMS was also analyzed. The application of LCM at the levels of products, enterprise, industry, and city were summarized and critically reviewed. At product level, LCM was mostly applied to the evaluation and management of industrial products, but rarely to technique and engineering or assessment of environmental performance. At enterprise level, LCM research focused on comprehensive management and decision-making regarding products and techniques for a few large enterprises, but rarely for medium-sized or small enterprises. At industry level, available LCM methods were applied to deconstruct the value chains of different industries and industrial ecological chains, which were used to evaluate resource-use efficiency, material consumption intensity, and environmental impact of all chains. At city level, LCM mainly focused on solid waste management, and research methods included material flow analysis, life cycle cost analysis, and life cycle assessment. Lastly, future research fields of LCM were discussed from six perspectives.
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