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宋有涛,孙子程,朱京海.植物景观遗传学研究进展.生态学报,2017,37(22):7410~7417 本文二维码信息
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植物景观遗传学研究进展
Advances in landscape genetics of plants
投稿时间:2015-11-20  修订日期:2017-03-03
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201511202349
关键词植物景观遗传学  生物多样性  基因流  遗传结构  适应性遗传变异
Key Wordsplant landscape genetics  biodiversity  gene flow  genetic structure  adaptive genetic variation
基金项目国家水体污染控制与治理重大专项(2014ZX07508-001,2015ZX07202-012)
作者单位E-mail
宋有涛 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 沈阳 110016;辽宁大学环境学院, 沈阳 110036  
孙子程 辽宁大学环境学院, 沈阳 110036  
朱京海 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 沈阳 110016 zhujingh@163.com 
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摘要:
植物景观遗传学是新兴的景观遗传学交叉学科的一个重要研究方向。目前植物景观遗传学的研究虽落后于动物,但其在生物多样性保护方面具有的巨大潜力不可忽视。从景观特征对遗传结构、环境因素对适应性遗传变异影响两个方面,系统综述了近十年来国际上植物景观遗传学的研究焦点和研究进展,比较了植物景观遗传学与动物景观遗传学研究在研究设计和研究方法上的异同,并基于将来植物景观遗传学由对空间遗传结构的描述发展为对景观遗传效应的量化分析及预测的发展框架,具体针对目前景观特征与遗传结构研究设计的系统性差、遗传结构与景观格局在时间上的误配、适应性位点与环境变量的模糊匹配、中性遗传变异与适应性遗传变异研究的分隔、景观与遗传关系分析方法的局限等五个方面提出了研究对策。
Abstract:
Landscape genetics of plants is an important research direction of the newly emerged interdisciplinary landscape genetics, which lags behind that of animals. These studies are increasingly important for the conservation of biodiversity and reserve management. This article briefly summarizes the major advances in plant landscape genetics in the past ten years form two aspects:the effects of landscapes on migration, dispersal, and gene flow measured by neutral genetic variation; and the interaction between the environment and adaptive genetic variation in natural populations and individuals. In addition, it compares landscape genetics of plants with that of animals through different study designs and analytical approaches. Due to the complexity of plant dispersal, landscape elements and analytical approaches are not generally considered in landscape genetics studies. For example, the least cost path analysis, popular in animal studies, is rarely used in plant studies. Furthermore, this article elucidates five problems in current studies of plants:(1) many studies lack an explicit research design for evaluating the effect of landscape pattern on genetic structure; (2) genetic structure is often analyzed with regard to contemporary landscapes, but it may reflect historical landscapes; (3) misleading results could be produced when limited loci are matched roughly to a combination of environmental variables; (4) studies on gene flow and adaptation have not yet been combined; and(5) many statistical methods could be inappropriate for landscape genetics. Plant landscape genetics studies should focus on solving these problems in the future and move from the description of spatial genetic structure to quantifying and predicting the effect of landscape pattern on genetic variation.
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