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刘某承,熊英,白艳莹,杨伦,闵庆文.生态功能改善目标导向的哈尼梯田生态补偿标准.生态学报,2017,37(7):2447~2454 本文二维码信息
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生态功能改善目标导向的哈尼梯田生态补偿标准
Ecological compensation standard for the Hani Rice Terrace System: an eco-functional-oriented improvement
投稿时间:2015-12-08  最后修改时间:2016-07-12
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201512082456
关键词生态补偿  生态系统服务  耕地资源  受偿意愿  机会成本  农业文化遗产
Key Wordsecological compensation  ecosystem services  land resources  willingness to accept  opportunity cost  GIAHS
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(41201586);中国工程院重点咨询项目(2013-XZ-22)
作者单位E-mail
刘某承 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101  
熊英 中国人民大学, 北京 100872  
白艳莹 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101  
杨伦 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
闵庆文 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 minqw@igsnrr.ac.cn 
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摘要:
稻田生产对生态环境的影响具有两面性,为使稻田生产提供不同组合或更高水平的环境服务,需要补偿农户因转变操作方式而损失的收益。以云南省红河哈尼族彝族自治州哈尼稻作梯田系统为例,基于稻田生态系统特点以及农户个人的主观经济决策特征,从农户的微观经济决策的视角,探讨稻田生态系统服务供给机会成本的空间分布;再从区域的宏观经济行为的视角,探讨补偿标准与农户愿意提供的生态环境效益的关系。从而,以稻田生态功能改善为导向,以新增生态环境效益为目标,耦合农户的受偿意愿与机会成本,实现了从生态功能改善需求(新增生态效益)来确定动态的补偿标准的可能。计算发现,当生态功能改善的目标定为新增生态系统服务80.77×104元hm-2 a-1时,补偿的标准应为3000元/hm2时;当生态功能改善的目标定为新增219.49×104元hm-2 a-1时,补偿的标准应为9000元/hm2时。
Abstract:
Agricultural land does not only provide food and fiber, which is important for food security for human beings, but also provides various non-market commodities for export or public use. However, there are also numerous negative impacts of paddy production on the environment. Thus, to encourage farmers to engage in ecological or organic agriculture to provide more ecosystem services, it is necessary to pay farmers for their losses when they alter their cultivation practices. However, most current standards of ecological compensation for paddy cultivation are calculated by separate factors, such as the cost of ecosystem conservation, value of ecosystem services, or willingness to accept eco-compensation. As such, a standard is difficult to achieve for all the stakeholders and there is a lack of operability due to neglected factors. Thus, this study was conducted in the Hani Terrace, which was designated as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) in 2010 and World Heritage in 2013, and we calculated the standard of paddy eco-compensation based on the subjective decision-making characteristics of individuals and paddy ecosystem characteristics. This study is based on the opportunity cost that ecosystem services supply with a goal of determining the supply curve for ecosystem services. First, through observation and sample testing, we compared the differences in the value of ecosystem services supplied by two production modes:conventional mono-cropping (use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides) and fish cultivation in rice fields (using half amount of fertilizers and no pesticides). Second, from the perspective of the microeconomic decision-making of individual farmers, we investigated the space distribution of opportunity costs for supplying paddy ecosystem services. Third, from the perspective of the macroeconomic behaviors of farmers, we investigated the relationship between the compensation standard and the eco-environment benefits willingly provided by the farmers. Finally, we combined famer willingness and the opportunity cost of ecosystem services, and the capacity of the majority to build an ecological-restoration oriented eco-compensation standard for the paddy system. The results indicated that the proportion of farmers converting their mode of production increased with the increase in the compensation payment. When the compensation payment amounted to 3000 yuan/hm2, the conversion ratio of cultivation practices reached 35.74%, the added value of ecosystem services was 80.77×104 yuan hm-2 a-1, and the required compensation funds was 91.04×104 yuan/a. When the compensation payment was as high as 9000 yuan/hm2, almost all farmers (97.12%) were willing to convert their mode of production; the added value of ecosystem services was 219.49×104 yuan hm-2 a-1 and the required compensation funds were 273.13×104 yuan/a.
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