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洪惠坤,谢德体,郭莉滨,胡蓉,廖和平.多功能视角下的山区乡村空间功能分异特征及类型划分.生态学报,2017,37(7):2415~2427 本文二维码信息
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多功能视角下的山区乡村空间功能分异特征及类型划分
Differentiation of spatial function in a mountainous rural area from a multi-functional perspective
投稿时间:2016-01-03  最后修改时间:2016-07-13
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201601030011
关键词多功能  山区  乡村空间  Dagum 基尼系数  生态
Key Wordsmulti-functional space  mountain area  rural space  Dagum Gini coefficient  ecology
基金项目国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项课题:三峡库区及上游流域农村面源污染控制技术与工程示范(2012ZX07104-003);中央高校基本业务费专项资金资助(XDJK2016C120)
作者单位E-mail
洪惠坤 西南大学地理科学学院, 重庆 400715;西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715  
谢德体 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715  
郭莉滨 重庆第二师范学院, 重庆 400065  
胡蓉 西南大学地理科学学院, 重庆 400715  
廖和平 西南大学地理科学学院, 重庆 400715 liaohp@swu.edu.cn 
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摘要:
以西部山区重庆乡村空间为研究对象,构建乡村空间多功能评价指标体系,将乡村空间多功能划分为农业生产功能、经济发展功能、生态保育功能、生态稳定性功能,社会保障居住家园功能五种子功能,采用熵权法定量核算2013年全市乡村空间功能值,运用GIS技术和Dagum基尼系数刻画重庆市不同地区乡村空间功能值地区差异特征,并划分了重庆市乡村空间多功能类型,研究结果表明:(1)山地型乡村地形复杂,景观类型多样,功能也极具多样性,研究区乡村空间除了生态稳定性功能外,其他各功能值具有显著的空间分异特征,有明显的空间集聚性。(2)Dagum基尼系数,是一种有效的技术方法,能够更为深入地刻画研究区乡村空间功能值地区间差异及区内差异特征。基尼系数测算及其分解结果显示,地区间差距是总体差距的主要来源,其贡献率都超过50%。(3)根据乡间空间多功能分布的差异性及山地乡村的特点和山区生态环境的脆弱性,将研究区乡村空间划分为农业生产-经济发展型,农业生产-人居生活型,人居生活-社会保障型,人居生活-经济发展型,水源涵养生态保育型,生态保育-经济发展型,生态保育-农业生产型,土壤保持生态保护型8种功能类型,能较好地体现地域特色,为科学健康的开发利用山地乡村空间土地资源提供有益借鉴,有利于区域协调可持续发展。
Abstract:
Rural areas are a combined space system including multi-level towns, villages, and administrative regions. At present, China is entering a stage of rapid economic development. Rapid industrialization and urbanization is accompanied by a recombination and interaction of urban and rural population mobility and economic and social development factors, which have resulted in a reconstruction of the socio-economic structure and spatial distribution patterns. Rural space is affected by various increasingly serious problems, such as eroded agricultural production space, exacerbated rural hollowing, extruded and broken ecological space, unbalanced functional rural space, decreased land utilization efficiency, and increasingly serious ecological and environmental crises. Additionally, differences in regional development conditions and processes, diversity of regional development goals, various social demands, and land use suitability have resulted in different geographical spaces with a variety of functions. As a result, the regional function of rural settlements has gradually transformed into a multi-function of "production, ecology, and life," presenting significant regional and temporal variability. Rural function has become increasingly complex and diversified, and rural development orientation includes a wide range of features. An in-depth study of rural transformation development in different regions, the in-homogeneity of rural spatial pattern, and the division in rural spatial function types during the reconstruction process, and the mechanisms and patterns of rural reconstruction from the dynamic mechanism of rural economic structure and spatial structure reconstruction is fundamental for the fields of regional agriculture and rural geography. This research is necessary to provide effective implementation of space control, and management and regulation for the healthy development of specific rural space, and for the systematic development and transformation of rural areas. Mountainous rural areas are characterized by complicated land space functional structure, abundant layers, and diversified spatial landscapes; therefore, it is impractical to solve issues of land utilization and spatial optimization in mountainous rural areas with traditional spatial planning theories and methods. The present study focused on the rural western mountainous areas of Chongqing City as a case study; we constructed a multi-function evaluation index system of rural space and identified the rural space multi-function as five sub-functions:agricultural production, economic development, ecological conservation, ecological stability, and social security. The present study adopted the entropy method to determine the rural spatial function values throughout Chongqing City in 2013, and applied Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology and the Dagum Gini coefficient estimation to determine the differential characteristics of rural spatial function and distribution of the multi-functional types of rural spaces in the city. The results showed that:(1) valley-type villages are characterized by complex terrain and diversified landscape types and functions; there was obvious spatial agglomeration and significant spatial variability in addition to the stability of ecological function. 2) The Dagum Gini coefficient is an effective technical method that can be used determine regional differences and inter-district disparity in the study area more clearly. These results showed that Gnb is the main source of the overall gap with a contribution rate of more than 50%. (3) Based on the distribution differences in rural space function, mountainous village characteristics, and ecological environment vulnerability, the space was divided into eight functional types:agricultural production and economic development, agricultural production and livable area, livable area and social security, livable area and economic development, water conservation and ecological conservation, ecological conservation and economic development, ecological conservation and agricultural production, and soil conservation and ecological protection. These functional types effectively reflect the regional characteristics, and provide a useful reference for scientific and environmental management and development, and utilization of the land resources of the mountainous rural space, thus enhancing coordinated and sustainable regional development.
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