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臧正,邹欣庆,吴雷,宋翘楚,吴小伟,于雯雯.基于公平与效率视角的中国大陆生态福祉及生态-经济效率评价.生态学报,2017,37(7):2403~2414 本文二维码信息
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基于公平与效率视角的中国大陆生态福祉及生态-经济效率评价
Evaluation of ecological well-being and eco-economic efficiency in the Chinese mainland: From the perspective of justice and efficiency
投稿时间:2016-01-04  最后修改时间:2016-07-12
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201601040014
关键词系统生态学  人类福祉  实证分析  时空异质性  公平与效率
Key Wordsecosystems ecology  human well-being  empirical analysis  temporal and spatial heterogeneity  justice and efficiency
基金项目国家重点基础研究发展计划资助项目(2013CB956503);国家自然科学基金划资助项目(41471431)
作者单位E-mail
臧正 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023  
邹欣庆 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023;中国南海研究协同创新中心, 南京 210093;南京大学海岸与海岛开发教育部重点实验室, 南京 210023 zouxq@nju.edu.cn 
吴雷 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023  
宋翘楚 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023  
吴小伟 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023  
于雯雯 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023  
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摘要:
基于生态系统服务价值理论,将"人类从生态系统中直接获取或享有的终端产品和服务"界定为生态福祉,从公平与效率视角提出相应表征方法。在此基础上,以中国大陆省区为例,对其2001-2013年间的人均生态福祉及生态-经济效率的时空演变格局进行实证分析,结果表明:①整体来看,研究时段内中国大陆省际人均生态福祉的基尼系数介于0.798-0.806之间,处于极不平均状态;省际生态-经济效率的标准差介于2.110-7.716之间,离散程度相对较高;②从时间上看,研究时段内中国大陆省际人均生态福祉及生态-经济效率的收敛趋势(σ-收敛)相对不明显;人均生态福祉具备绝对β-收敛特征但速度较低(0.16%);生态-经济效率在科技进步及科研投入要素的显著驱动作用下,呈现条件β-收敛现象。③从空间上看,研究时段内中国大陆人均生态福祉及生态-经济效率在"胡焕庸线"两侧的地域分异现象比较明显,其重心分别位于青海和安徽境内,整体向东北和西北方向移动,移动速度分别为5.76、3.95 km/a。在高消耗、高污染产业逐渐向中西部转移的背景下,应当基于公平与效率视角权衡生态保护与经济发展问题,促进西部地区生态-经济效率和东部地区人均生态福祉共同提高。
Abstract:
Terminal products and services that human beings directly acquire or enjoy from ecosystems are defined as ecological well-being, based on the theory of ecosystem services. The relevant characterization methods were established based on the perspective of justice and efficiency. The current study analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of per capita ecological well-being and eco-economic efficiency from 2001 to 2013 in the Chinese mainland provinces. The results indicated that during the period studied, inter-provincial per capita ecological well-being of Chinese mainland ranged between 0.798 and 0.806, which represents a state of extreme inequality; the standard deviation of inter-provincial eco-economic efficiency ranged from 2.110 to 7.716, indicating the absolute difference was relatively high. The Chinese mainland inter-provincial per capita ecological well-being, as well as eco-economic efficiency indicated an inconspicuous tendency of overall convergence (σ-convergence) during the 13 years studied. The per capita ecological well-being showed an absolute β-convergence with a low rate of 0.16%, whereas the eco-economic efficiency showed conditional β-convergence with being driven by significant advancements in science and technology and input from scientific research. Spatially we found that Chinese mainland per capita ecological well-being and eco-economic efficiency exhibited spatial heterogeneity in the northwestern and southeastern directions between the "HU line." Their centers were located in Qinghai (5.76 m per year to the northwest) and Anhui (3.95 m per year to the northwest), respectively. With the background of high-consumption and high-pollution industries gradually moving to the mid-western area, we should strike a balance between ecological protection and economic development, based on the perspective of justice and efficiency, and promote the common improvement of eco-economic efficiency of the western region and per capita ecological well-being of the eastern.
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