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韩玮,岳云瑞.风胁迫对三种叶菜的机械损伤及预测模型.生态学报,2017,37(13):4356~4365 本文二维码信息
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风胁迫对三种叶菜的机械损伤及预测模型
Mechanical damage and prediction models of three leafy vegetables caused by wind
投稿时间:2016-01-12  修订日期:2017-01-10
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201601120080
关键词风胁迫  机械损伤  叶菜  模型拟合  综合评价
Key Wordswind stress  mechanical damage  leafy vegetables  model fitting  comprehensive assessment
基金项目江苏省高校自然科学研究面上项目(14KJB170013);国家自然科学基金面上资助项目(41475107);江苏省科技支撑计划(BE2015693)
作者单位E-mail
韩玮 南京信息工程大学应用气象学院, 江苏省农业气象重点实验室, 南京 210044 binzhouhanwei@163.com 
岳云瑞 南京信息工程大学应用气象学院, 江苏省农业气象重点实验室, 南京 210044  
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摘要:
为了研究风害对不同叶菜的影响,本研究通过模拟风洞试验,以上海青,四季小白菜,玻璃生菜3种叶菜为试验材料,分别在5,15,25 m/s风速条件下设置5,10,15 min的风胁迫处理,采用电导率法、伤口染色目测法、伤口色泽L值测定法研究风胁迫对不同种类叶菜造成的机械损伤,并对以上3种测定方法进行了综合评价,进而建立相应的数学模型。结果表明:风速和风胁迫时间两因子均对3种叶菜的相对电导率、目测等级、L值有显著性影响;两者的交互作用对上海青和四季小白菜的相对电导率有显著性影响,但对玻璃生菜的相对电导率无显著影响;另外,两者的交互作用对3种叶菜的目测等级均影响显著,但对3种叶菜的L值影响均不显著。25 m/s和15 m/s风对3种叶菜都可引起显著机械损伤,其中,在25 m/s持续15 min风处理下机械损伤最为严重,在此处理组合下,上海青、四季小白菜和玻璃生菜的相对电导率分别高于对照214.70%,228.96%,266.92%;目测等级分别高于对照2.3,2.4和3.6级;L值分别低于对照21.17%,38.91%,42.73%。显然,与上海青和四季小白菜相比,玻璃生菜更容易受到风害影响。Gauss2D拟合模型中,3种叶菜机械损伤拟合模型的决定系数R2均超过0.95,证明该拟合模型能较好地预测不同叶菜遭受风害后的机械损伤程度,可以为风害机械损伤预测提供理论基础。
Abstract:
Mechanical damage caused by wind may lead to economic loss in the production of leafy vegetables, especially during harvest time. Shanghaiqing, four-season Chinese cabbage, and glass lettuce are planted widely in the southeastern coast of China. However, the magnitude of the mechanical damage caused by wind is uncertain. In addition, the relationship between wind stress and mechanical damage to leaves has rarely been studied. To resolve these problems, three leafy vegetables were used to evaluate the mechanical effects of wind on plants through a simulated wind tunnel. During this experiment, these three species were subjected to ten treatments-a control treatment, three levels of wind speeds (5 m/s,15 m/s,25 m/s) and three different durations of wind exposure (5 min, 10 min, 15 min). To quantify the mechanical damage caused by wind, three detection methods-the conductivity, wound staining visual, and L value measurement methods-were used. Then, a comprehensive assessment method was proposed by evaluating the three detection methods and using them to assess the degree of mechanical damage. Moreover, a Gauss2D equation was used to establish a prediction model for mechanical damages caused by wind for the three species. The results showed that the relative conductivity, visual level, and L value were significantly affected by wind speed and stress time. The interaction of wind speed and stress time had significant effects on relative conductivity of Shanghaiqing and four-season Chinese cabbage, while having no significant effect on the relative conductivity of glass lettuce. The interaction of wind speed and stress time had significant effects on visual grade while having no significant effect on L values. Mechanical damage to the three leafy vegetables occurred mainly after being exposed to the 25 m/s and 15 m/s wind conditions, while the 5 m/s wind speed had little effect. For Shanghaiqing, four-season Chinese cabbage, and glass lettuce, the mechanical damage was most serious after exposure to the 25 m/s wind condition for 15 min. The relative conductivities were 214.70%, 228.96%, 266.92% higher than the control; the visual levels were 2.3, 2.4, and 3.6 higher than the control; L values were 21.17%, 38.91%, and 42.73% lower than the control, respectively. Among the three leafy vegetables, the glass lettuce was the most susceptible to wind damage according to a comprehensive evaluation of mechanical damage. This susceptibility may be due to the higher leaf water content and lower leaf cellulose content in glass lettuce. Mechanical damage under different wind speeds and wind stress times was fitted by a Gauss2D function. The higher R2 (0.9552-0.9840) showed that these models fit the data well. The mechanical damage caused by wind can be predicted using these prediction models, which provide a reference for leafy vegetable crops, and provide early warning of mechanical damage from wind stress.
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