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王晓军,郭妙玲,王兵.流域风化层雨洪调蓄生态机理.生态学报,2017,37(13):4610~4618 本文二维码信息
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流域风化层雨洪调蓄生态机理
Ecological mechanisms of regolith stormwater storage
投稿时间:2016-01-25  最后修改时间:2017-01-09
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201601250175
关键词风化层  雨洪调蓄  生态结构  生态功能  生态机理
Key Wordsregolith  stormwater storage  eco-structure  ecological function  ecological mechanism
基金项目山西省科技重大专项资助(20121101011);国家自然科学青年基金项目(41201277)
作者单位E-mail
王晓军 山西大学环境与资源学院, 太原 030006 xjwang@sxu.edu.cn 
郭妙玲 山西大学环境与资源学院, 太原 030006  
王兵 山西大学环境与资源学院, 太原 030006  
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摘要:
风化层是陆地表面经各种风化作用而形成的疏松堆积层,是雨洪调蓄的天然场所,对流域水资源管理有着重要意义。从复杂开放系统论的观点出发,结合近年来国内外对风化层雨洪调蓄特征的研究,分析了风化层在流域雨洪调蓄中的生态机理。主要研究了风化层的概念、风化层雨洪调蓄的组成与时空结构;解释了风化层集水、蓄水、净水、养水、供水功能等方面的雨洪调蓄功能;分析了风化层与地形地貌、生境、地质、土壤、大气、能量以及人类活动等流域环境要素的生态关系。研究表明:(1)流域风化层具有重要的雨洪调蓄特征,是由其特有的物质组成与时空结构特征决定的,正常发挥风化层的雨洪调蓄功能,流域中的水为健康的"活水",不同流域风化层的物质组成和结构的时空变化极大,其雨洪调蓄功能的发挥机制也极其复杂,采用常规定量研究方法几乎不可能掌握其机理,应采用复杂开放系统理论和方法开展研究;(2)风化层是流域系统的一个子系统,与其它流域环境要素之间是相互联系和相互作用的,过去我们通常采用的"排水范式"解决局部问题以期改善整个流域系统问题的治理思路是行不通的,已不适应今后的风化层雨洪调蓄生态学研究,还极可能衍生新的系统问题;(3)将流域视为一个复杂开放系统,国外流域生态学家提出了生态结构(Ecostructures)的概念,强调流域系统自身生态能力的发挥,将土壤-植被-大气连续体(SVA)研究扩展到风化层-生境-能量连续体(RHE)的生态耦合研究。因此建议,采取"边学边做"(Learning by Doing)的流域适应性管理,应当是今后流域风化层雨洪调蓄管理的重要方向。
Abstract:
Regolith is a loose accumulation layer formed by weathering over land surface. It is a natural structure for storm water storage, and has significant effects on the management of water resources in watershed. Based on recent research home and abroad, the Complex Open System Theory was employed in the present study to analyze the ecological mechanism of regolith stormwater storage. The material composition and spatio-temporal structure of regolith with respect to stormwater storage are discussed in this paper. The stormwater storage functions of regolith, including water collection, storage, purification, nourishment, and supply are explained, and the ecological relationships between regolith and watershed environmental elements, such as the topography, habitat, geology, soil, atmosphere, energy, and human activities were explored. This study shows that: (1) the storage characteristics of stormwater of the regolith are crucially influenced by its unique matter and spatio-temporal structure. If the stormwater storage function of the regolith could come into play, this water could change into healthy "living water." The spatio-temporal variation of the material composition and structure of the regolith in different watersheds is significantly distinct, and the functional mechanism of the regolith stormwater storage is extremely complex. The use of quantitative methods to study these mechanisms is not feasible; therefore, Complex Open System Theory should be employed. (2) Regolith is a subsystem of watershed, which is connected to and interacts with other environmental features in the watershed. The earlier methods of regulation that used the "Drainage Paradigm" to solve problems partially in order to improve the whole watershed systematical condition are no longer applicable, since these methods do not adapt to later ecological studies of regolith stormwater storage. It is much more likely that new systematical problems would arise. (3) The watershed is considered to be a complex open system, and watershed ecologists in other countries have put forth the "Ecostructures" concept. It emphasizes the development of the watershed system's ecological capabilities. Therefore, the focus of the studies on watershed stormwater storage should be expanded from the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere continuum to the Regolith-Habitat-Energy continuum. The present study suggests that we adopt "Learning by Doing" management methods for watershed adaptability, which would be an important direction for research on the management of watershed regolith stormwater storage in future.
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