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张智光.面向生态文明的超循环经济:理论、模型与实例.生态学报,2017,37(13):4549~4561 本文二维码信息
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面向生态文明的超循环经济:理论、模型与实例
Hypercycle economy oriented to an ecological civilization:theory, model, and instance
投稿时间:2016-02-14  修订日期:2017-01-11
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201602140278
关键词循环经济  超循环经济  超循环理论  共生理论  林业  造纸工业  生态文明
Key Wordscircular economy  hypercycle economy  hypercycle theory  symbiosis theory  forestry  paper industry  ecological civilization
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(71673136,70873059);国家科技支撑计划课题(2006BAD32B08);国家林业局软科学研究项目(2013-R07);江苏省软科学研究项目(BR2015066)
作者单位E-mail
张智光 南京林业大学经济管理学院, 南京 210037 zzg@njfu.com.cn 
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摘要:
在全球气候变化背景下,研究适应生态文明要求的新的经济运行模式——超循环经济的基本原理、结构模型、运行机理和实际应用。首先,运用系统结构分析方法梳理不同时期经济运行模式的演进过程:由"从摇篮到产品"的粗放经济,到"从摇篮到坟墓"的末端治理经济,再到"从摇篮到摇篮"的循环经济。延续这一绿色发展趋势,根据文明演化的共生理论和艾根创立的超循环理论,提出超循环经济的理论构想,并描绘"从孕育到孕育"的超循环经济的概念结构。其次,将超循环经济思想应用于林纸拓展系统(EFPS)。在分析中国造纸工业的发展现状和瓶颈及其与林业和生态环境相互关系的基础上,按照资源链、生态链和价值链(简称"三链",或3C)逐层拓展的逻辑顺序,研究EFPS超循环经济的系列结构模型。具体来说,依次建立起各层次的超循环结构模型——制浆造纸系统的资源链核心层模型、供应链系统的资源链拓展层模型、生态环境系统的生态链拓展层模型,以及社会经济系统的价值链拓展层模型。然后将各层次的结构模型综合起来,形成EFPS超循环经济的多重拓展-嵌套整体模型。该模型既能展示EFPS超循环经济系统的全貌,又包含其各层次的系统结构。因此既能为各级政府在制定国家和地区的循环经济总体发展规划时提供参考,又能为制造企业、营林组织、供应链、行业协会等各类经济主体的绿色经营决策提供支撑。最后,在上述实证研究的基础上进行理论提升。一方面提出超循环经济的5R原则:减量化、再循环、再利用、再分配和再培育。另一方面基于5R原则和3C循环链,构建5R-3C理论模型,并研究其5R-3C共生运行机理。研究表明,在超循环经济模式下,产业与生态系统可以实现互利共生的良性循环。以上研究成果的主要创新之处在于:在原理上,揭示了面向生态文明的超循环经济的概念结构、本质属性和5R原则;在机理上,创立了超循环经济的5R-3C模型及其共生运行机理;在实施上,以林纸拓展系统为例,为超循环经济理论的"落地生根"和推广应用构建了具体的多重拓展-嵌套模型。
Abstract:
A new economic pattern "hypercycle economy" oriented to the requirements of an ecological civilization is researched under the background of global climate change. This study includes its basic principles, structural models, operational mechanism, and practical applications. Firstly, the evolving process of economic patterns in different periods is summarized as follows: "cradle-to-product" in an extensive economy, "cradle-to-grave" in an end-treatment economy, and "cradle-to-cradle" in a circular economy, through the analysis of system structures. Following the trend of "green" evolution, a new theoretical hypothesis of hypercycle economy is conceived, and its conceptual structure of "breeding-to-breeding" is described, according to the symbiosis theory of human civilization's evolution and the hypercycle theory put forth by Manfred Eigen in the 1970s. Next, the principle of hypercycle economy is applied to an expanded forest-paper system (EFPS). By analyzing the development and the bottlenecks of the Chinese paper industry, and its relationship with forestry and the natural environment, a series of structure models for EFPS hypercycle economy are studied by means of layer-by-layer expansion in the logical order of resources chain, eco-chain, and value chain (three chains, or 3C). Specifically, the hypercycle structure models for different layers are established successively as follows: the core layer of resources chain in pulp and paper system, expanded layer of resources chain in the supply chain system, expanded layer of eco-chain in the natural environment system, and expanded layer of value chain in the socio-economy system. Then, a multi-layer expansion-nestification overall model of EFPS hypercycle economy is constituted by means of synthesizing the structure models of various layers. This model not only reveals the complete picture of the EFPS hypercycle economy system, but also retains the system structures of its various layers. Thus, this not only provides references for governments at different levels to make national or regional development plans about circular economy, but also provides support to various economic entities, such as manufacturing enterprises, forestry organizations, supply chains, and business associations to make green business decisions. Finally, the above-mentioned empirical research is promoted in theory. On the one hand, the 5R principle of hypercycle economy is proposed as follows: reduction, recycle, reuse, redistribution, and recultivation. On the other hand, a 5R-3C theoretical model is created according to the 5R principle and the three chains, and then its symbiotic operational mechanism is researched. The study shows that the industrial system and ecosystem can achieve a positive circle of mutualism in hypercycle economy. The main innovations of the above research are as follows. In principle, the conceptual structure, essential attributes, and 5R principles of hypercycle economy oriented to an ecological civilization are revealed. In mechanism, 5R-3C model and its symbiotic operational mechanism for hypercycle economy are founded. And in realization, the concrete multi-layer expansion-nestification model of EFPS hypercycle economy is established, which contributes a practical example for the application of hypercycle economy theory to a wider field.
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