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肖娟,杨永清.基于生态适应性理论的川东民居传统聚落景观分析.生态学报,2017,37(13):4529~4537 本文二维码信息
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基于生态适应性理论的川东民居传统聚落景观分析
Landscape of traditional settlements in eastern Sichuan based on ecological adaptation
投稿时间:2016-03-19  修订日期:2017-02-15
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201603190492
关键词传统聚落  聚落景观  生态适应性  聚落
Key Wordstraditional settlement  settlement landscape  ecological adaptability  settlements
基金项目973计划前期研究专项(2014CB160306);重庆市科委自然科学基金(cstc2012jjA00011)
作者单位E-mail
肖娟 重庆师范大学生命科学学院, 重庆 401331  
杨永清 重庆师范大学生命科学学院, 重庆 401331 yangyq2k@aliyun.com 
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摘要:
以川东地区传统聚落为研究对象,基于现代生态适应性理论,探索了川东传统聚落空间格局的构建方法和驱动因素,以期为传统聚落的生态适应性和空间结构演变提供理论依据。研究表明:传统聚落实质体现了其对自然地理要素及生态系统完整性的适应。在聚落选址方面具体化为山、河、路、池等环境要素,形成理想聚居模式以适应环境。传统聚落营建风水林以弥补原自然环境的不足,这不仅起到了维持生物多样性的作用,且使人和其它生物及环境要素一起构成一个完整的生态系统。在房屋形式的选择上,传统聚落建筑极富地域特色,反映了对自然的尊崇和适应。传统聚落是一种以人类行为为主导,自然环境为依托,资源流动为命脉,社会、文化为经络的人工复合生态系统。经济、文化和制度三者相辅相成构成社会系统的原动力。
Abstract:
Dwellings in eastern Sichuan have been well preserved as one of the few settlement landscapes in China. The preservation and research on dwellings in this area play an important role in China's cultural ecology and in studying the conservation of its biodiversity. Focusing on the traditional settlements in eastern Sichuan, this paper aims to provide the theoretical basis for the reasonable ecological adaptability and spatial evolvement of the traditional settlement. We explore the construction of traditional settlements' spatial pattern and the factors driving this special pattern from the perspective of modern ecological adaptability. As this study shows, traditional settlements actually reflect natural geographical elements in ecological adaptation as well as the integrity of the ecosystem. The site of the traditional settlement consists of such environmental elements as mountains, rivers, roads, and pools, which constitutes the ideal settlement model. In fact, the cultural landscape in traditional settlements is a sort of initial adaptation to the physical and geographical environment and compensates for the inadequacy of the original natural environment via the construction of "feng shui lin." From the perspective of modern ecology, the surrounding forests do not only provide defense from windstorms and conserve the soil, but they also maintain biodiversity and form a complete ecosystem, combining human and other biological and environmental elements. The house type of traditional settlement buildings embodies its unique local characteristics, and reflects the transition from worshipping nature to fitting into nature. The traditional settlement is an artificial ecosystem, in which human actions play a key role in influencing the natural environment, while the flow of resources acts as the lifeblood, and society and culture function as the main and collateral channels. Economy, culture and regime supplement each other to form the underlying power of the social system. Cultural factors mainly come from the pursuit of human spiritual needs; institutional factors reflect people's relationship inside and outside of the settlement; economic factors mostly stem from human survival needs.
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