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孙萌,刘洋,李保国,齐国辉,张雪梅.核桃园行内地面覆盖的土壤微域生态效应.生态学报,2017,37(13):4434~4443 本文二维码信息
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核桃园行内地面覆盖的土壤微域生态效应
Ecological effects of within-row mulching on soil microsites in walnut orchards
投稿时间:2016-03-24  修订日期:2017-01-09
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201603240523
关键词地面覆盖  核桃  土壤微域  生态效应
Key Wordsmulching  walnut  soil microsite  ecological effect
基金项目国家林业行业公益专项(201504408);河北省科技支撑计划项目(16236810D)
作者单位E-mail
孙萌 河北农业大学林学院, 河北省林木种质资源与森林保护重点实验室, 保定 071000  
刘洋 河北农业大学林学院, 河北省林木种质资源与森林保护重点实验室, 保定 071000  
李保国 河北农业大学林学院, 河北省林木种质资源与森林保护重点实验室, 保定 071000;河北省核桃工程技术研究中心, 临城 054300  
齐国辉 河北农业大学林学院, 河北省林木种质资源与森林保护重点实验室, 保定 071000;河北省核桃工程技术研究中心, 临城 054300 bdqgh@sina.com 
张雪梅 河北农业大学林学院, 河北省林木种质资源与森林保护重点实验室, 保定 071000;河北省核桃工程技术研究中心, 临城 054300  
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摘要:
为了探明核桃园行内地面覆盖的土壤微域生态环境效应、确立核桃园科学省力的土壤管理措施,以盛果期早实薄皮核桃‘绿岭’为试材,通过连续4 a的行内地面覆盖,研究了园地土壤的水分、通气、矿质营养及三大微生物区系等微域生态环境的状况,结果表明:通过连续四年覆盖,0-20 cm土层,覆盖牛粪、碎木屑、苜蓿处理及CK 2014年核桃生长期的土壤平均质量含水量的变异系数分别为9.27%、10.27%、12.15%和13.96%,最大变幅分别为1.86%、1.95%、2.17%和2.63%;20-40 cm土层,覆盖牛粪、碎木屑、苜蓿处理及CK的土壤平均质量含水量分别为13.23%、12.46%、11.77%和11.43%。覆盖牛粪、碎木屑、苜蓿及CK的0-60 cm土层的平均土壤容重为1.34、1.38、1.43 g/cm3和1.48 g/cm3,3类微生物总量分别为430.94×104、208.87×104、183.42×104个/g和160.46×104个/g。通过主成分分析对覆盖牛粪、碎木屑、苜蓿处理及CK的土壤肥力进行综合评价,得分分别为0.61、0.26、0.09和-0.96,各因子对土壤肥力水平的综合效应排序为:土壤有机质含量 > 全氮含量 > 全钾含量 > 全磷含量 > 土壤质量含水量 > 孔隙度 > 细菌数量 > 真菌数量 > 放线菌数量 > 土壤容重。
Abstract:
In recent years, walnut (Juglans regia L.) has become one of the state strategic economic tree species. However, although traditional soil management practices, such as intensive agriculture and deep tillage, are both time- and energy-consuming, they are still used in most walnut orchards. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a simple and effective soil management strategy to replace traditional practices. In the present study, we investigated the ecological effects of within-row mulching in soil microsites, which has been very popular in both Japan and America, and established an effective soil management practice in walnut orchards. Precocious ‘Lvling’ walnut trees in full fruit were used as trial materials, and soil ecological conditions, such as soil moisture, soil aeration, mineral nutrition, and three kinds of microflora (bacteria, fungi, and actinomyces), were studied in response to continuous within-row mulching. In the 2014 growing season, we found that the variation coefficients of soil water content of the 0-20 cm layer of soil mulched with dairy manure, wood chips, alfalfa, and control (non-mulching) were 9.27%, 10.27%, 12.15%, and 13.29%, respectively, and the maximum amplitudes were 1.86%, 1.95%, 2.17%, and 2.63%. Meanwhile, the average water contents of the 20-40 cm soil layer were 13.23%, 12.46%, 11.77%, and 11.43%, and the maximum amplitudes were 1.58%, 1.61%, 1.71%, and 2.44%, whereas the variation coefficients were 7.96, 9.49, 9.70, and 11.11%. In addition, continuous within-row mulching reduced the maximum amplitudes and variation coefficients of soil water content, which indicated that the soil moisture was more stable. The soil bulk densities in the 0-60 cm soil layer were 1.34, 1.38, 1.43 g/cm3, and 1.48 g/cm3; the total porosities were 37.62%, 36.19%, 35.29%, and 29.03%; and the maximum water capacities were 752.40, 723.80, 705.87, and 580.67 t/hm2. In addition, the density of three kinds of microflora (bacteria, fungi, and actinomyces) were 430.94×104, 208.87×104, 183.42×104 cfu/g, and 160.46×104 cfu/g, in soils mulched with dairy manure, wood chips, alfalfa, and control (non-mulching), respectively; the Shannon-Wiener indices were 0.62, 0.58, 0.41, and 0.30; and the Simpson's diversity indices were 0.24, 0.21, 0.13, and 0.09. Therefore, our findings indicated that both soil aeration and microbial diversity were improved by mulching. Principal component analysis further indicated that the comprehensive scores of soil fertility with mulching dairy manure, wood chips, alfalfa, and control (non-mulching) were 0.61, 0.26, 0.09, and -0.96 and that the comprehensive effect order of the various fertility factors on soil fertility level was: organic matter > total N > total K > total P > water content > soil porosity > bacteria > fungi > actinomyces > soil bulk density. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that within-row mulching is beneficial to the development of soil microsites and that dairy manure was the most effective among the three mulching materials investigated, followed by wood chips and alfalfa, respectively. However, in the long-term, the effects of within-row mulching remain unclear and require further investigation.
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