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曾令清,付成,奚露,彭姜岚,付世建.鳊幼鱼能量代谢和个性行为的个体变异及表型关联.生态学报,2017,37(14):4807~4816 本文二维码信息
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鳊幼鱼能量代谢和个性行为的个体变异及表型关联
Phenotypic correlations and individual variation of energy metabolism and personality in juvenile Chinese bream (Parabramis pekinensis)
投稿时间:2016-03-27  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201603270548
关键词标准代谢率  最大代谢率  个性  表型变异  鳊鱼
Key Wordsstandard metabolic rate  maximum metabolic rate  personality  phenotypic variation  Parabramis pekinensis
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(31300341);重庆市自然科学基金项目(cstc2014jcyjA00018);重庆市教委科技项目(KJ130619);重庆师范大学青年人才拔尖培育计划项目(02030307-00027)资助;重庆市高等学校青年骨干教师资助计划项目(CQJW-02060301-1714)
作者单位E-mail
曾令清 重庆师范大学进化生理与行为学实验室, 动物生物学重庆市重点实验室, 重庆 401331  
付成 重庆师范大学进化生理与行为学实验室, 动物生物学重庆市重点实验室, 重庆 401331  
奚露 重庆师范大学进化生理与行为学实验室, 动物生物学重庆市重点实验室, 重庆 401331  
彭姜岚 重庆师范大学进化生理与行为学实验室, 动物生物学重庆市重点实验室, 重庆 401331  
付世建 重庆师范大学进化生理与行为学实验室, 动物生物学重庆市重点实验室, 重庆 401331 shijianfu9@hotmail.com 
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摘要:
自然界中动物的表型特征(如形态、生理和行为)存在明显的种内个体差异,并且该差异在不同环境条件下保持稳定。为考察鲤科鱼类能量代谢和个性行为的个体差异及二者的关联,以鳊(Parabramis pekinensis)幼鱼为实验对象,在(25.0±0.5) ℃条件下测定30尾鳊幼鱼的标准代谢率(SMR)、最大代谢率(MMR,由力竭运动诱导)和过量耗氧(EPOC)并计算代谢空间(MS)和相对代谢空间(FAS),随后测定鳊幼鱼的勇敢性(Boldness)和活跃性(Activity)两个个性行为学指标(测定Ⅰ),1个月后(测定Ⅱ)重复测定该种鱼的上述表型特征参数。结果显示:(1)1个月后鳊幼鱼的体重和体长均显著增加且具有较好的重复性(二者P<0.05)。(2)除MMR、MS、FAS和EPOC外,鳊幼鱼SMR具有明显的重复性;SMR与MS、FAS以及EPOC均呈现负相关(所有P<0.05),与MMR不相关;MS和FAS与MMR呈现正相关(二者P<0.01);实验期间,鳊幼鱼部分能量代谢参数的相关性保持不变。(3)鳊的勇敢性(潜伏时间)重复性较差,且测定Ⅱ鳊幼鱼的潜伏时间明显增加(P<0.05),测定Ⅰ和测定Ⅱ的潜伏时间与SMR均不相关;活跃性的移动路程、游泳速度和运动时间比的重复性较差,三者之间的正相关不受时间影响;相比较测定Ⅰ,测定Ⅱ鳊幼鱼活跃性的3个指标均明显增加(所有P<0.05)。(4)不论测定Ⅰ还是测定Ⅱ鳊幼鱼的SMR与实验期间特定体重增长率(SGR)均呈正相关(二者P < 0.01)。研究表明在实验室环境条件下鳊幼鱼的能量代谢和个性行为具有非平行的变化规律和重复性,表型特征之间存在关联,并且这些关联受环境条件的影响程度不尽相同;研究还提示该种鱼的SMR在短期内可预测个体的生长率。
Abstract:
In nature, consistent individual differences (CIDs) in phenotypic traits (e.g., morphology, physiology, or behavior) are a widespread phenomenon in animals. CIDs in phenotypic traits are maintained over time, and can be measured by repeatability at different times. We used juvenile Chinese bream (Parabramis pekinensis) as an animal model to determine individual variation and correlation between energy metabolism and personality behaviors of cyprinid fish. Under conditions of (25±0.5)℃, the standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR, induced by exhaustive exercise), and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) of fish were determined, and the metabolic scope (MS) and factorial metabolic scope (FAS) were also calculated. Personality behaviors, including boldness (indicated by latency), activity (indicated by distance moved, average swimming velocity, and percent time spent moving) were measured for individuals (trial Ⅰ). All of the aforementioned phenotypic traits were measured again after one month (trial Ⅱ). The results showed that both body mass and body length of juvenile Chinese bream increased substantially, and these two morphological parameters showed good repeatability during the experiment (both P < 0.05). Only the SMR of fish was repeatable, and not MMR, MS, FAS, and EPOC. SMR was negatively correlated with MS, FAS, and EPOC (all P < 0.05), and showed no correlation with MMR. MS had a positive correlation with both FAS and MMR (both P < 0.05). The direction of some correlations between components of energy metabolism of the juvenile Chinese bream did not change during the course of experiment. Boldness (indicated as latency) of the experimental fish did not exhibit repeatability, and was significantly higher in trial Ⅱ than in trial Ⅰ (P < 0.05). The latencies of the two measurements were not correlated with SMR. In addition, distance moved, swimming velocity, and percent time spent moving were also not repeatable. However, the relationships among these three activity parameters were all positive in spite of the effects of time. When compared to those of trial Ⅰ, the values of the three parameters of activity all increased in trial Ⅱ. SMR in the two trials were positively related to the specific growth rate (SGR) in this fish species during the course of experiment. The present study suggests there were nonparallel changes in tendency and repeatability between the energy metabolism and personality behaviors of juvenile Chinese bream under artificial rearing conditions where environmental parameters were spatially and temporally predictable. Some correlations existed between the phenotypic traits and were substantially affected, to different extents, by environmental conditions. SMR of juvenile Chinese bream may predict their growth trajectory during their juvenile stage.
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