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赵秋叶,施晓清.城市产业生态网络特征与演进规律——以北京市为例.生态学报,2017,37(14):4873~4882 本文二维码信息
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城市产业生态网络特征与演进规律——以北京市为例
Characteristics and evolution of an urban industrial ecological network:a case study of Beijing
投稿时间:2016-04-12  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201604120668
关键词城市产业生态系统  生态网络  循环性  生态效率  上升性和恢复力  演进
Key Wordsurban industrial ecosystem  ecological network  roundput  eco-efficiency  ascendency and redundancy  evolution
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助(71373259)
作者单位E-mail
赵秋叶 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
施晓清 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 shixq@rcees.ac.cn 
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摘要:
产业生态系统发展规律对于产业转型升级至关重要,对其进行研究也是当前产业生态学的新方向。产业生态系统是指在一定区域内,产业组分以及环境组分之间通过物质交换及能量流动等形成的有机统一整体。产业生态网络则是其各组分之间通过物质流等相互作用构成的生态关系的一种拓扑结构。基于货币型投入产出模型通过物质型转化构建城市尺度产业生态网络,借鉴生态网络分析方法,提出通过循环性、生态效率、上升性3类特征指标判定产业生态网络的演进规律。实证研究了2005-2014年北京市产业生态系统的特征及其演进规律,阐明了其发展的趋势。主要结论是:从趋势分析,北京市产业生态系统循环性、生态效率和上升性有随时间而提升的趋势。其中,循环性和上升性变化趋势一致:总体呈现上升趋势,且2007年数值明显高于其他年份;生态效率总体随年份呈现波浪式增速的趋势;从指数分析:各年份循环指数(FCI)介于0-1之间,表明产业系统的物质循环流量均小于直接流量;A/C指数介于0.187-0.256之间,表明离理论可持续发展状态(0.401)还有相当的距离;生态效率10年提高2.4倍,在2013年已经接近1,到2014年实现大于1的水平,其生态效率已达到这10a间的最优的状态。总体上,北京市产业系统正在向物质循环性、生态效率以及系统上升性逐步提高的方向转型。
Abstract:
The evolution of the industrial ecosystem is extremely important for industrial transformation and growth, and it is the frontier direction of industrial ecology. The industrial ecosystem is an analogue of a biological ecosystem and conducts material exchange and energy flow between different industries and the environment in a certain area. In such a system, the consumption of energy and materials is optimized, waste generation is minimized, and the effluents of one process serve as the raw material of another process. An industrial ecological network is a topological structural network consisting of the ecological relationships among different components, such as material or energetic relationships. In this paper, we construct a physical urban industrial ecological network based on an input-output analysis. Based on the ecological network analysis method, we suggest three characteristics indicators, roundput, eco-efficiency, and ascendency, to analyze the evolution of the urban industrial ecosystem. Roundput serves to describe the condition of an industrial ecosystem as it suits the purpose of being opposite to the term ‘throughput’, which is commonly used to illustrate the linear nature of the material flows in an industrial system; from raw materials, to products, to wastes. Ascendency, which combines system activity and organization, provides a single measure of the unitary process of growth and development. In addition, we use Beijing as an example to study the evolutionary tendency of the Beijing industrial ecosystem from 2005-2014. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) from tendency analysis, the three characteristics of the Beijing industrial ecosystem significantly increased over time. The evolution tendency of roundput and ascendency were nearly the same; the overall trend was upward with time and the numerical value in 2007 was significantly higher than that of other years. Eco-efficiency showed a trend of wave growth over the year. There were four periods of eco-efficiency growth based on the increasing speed. Period one was from year 2005 to 2007 (average increasing speed was 6.03% per year). Period two was from year 2007 to 2009 (average increasing speed was 17.42% per year). Period three was from 2009 to 2011 (average increasing speed was 3.58% per year) and period four was from 2011 to 2014 (average increasing speed is 16.76% per year). The eco-efficiency value in period one and three increased mildly, whereas in period two and four it increased sharply. (2) From indicator value analysis, the Finn cycling index of each year was between 0 and 1, which indicated that cycling throughflow of the Beijing industrial ecosystem was greater than straight throughflow. The eco-efficiency value increased 2.4 times in 10 years. Moreover, the eco-efficiency value in 2013 was slightly lower than 1, whereas in 2014 the eco-efficiency value was higher than 1, which indicated that the eco-efficiency in the Beijing industrial ecosystem reached the optimum state in 2014 from 2005 to 2014. The A/C value ranged from 0.187 to 0.256, lower than 0.401, indicating sustainable development capacity of the Beijing industrial ecosystem is not at the optimum state. Future research will focus on constructing compartmental industrial ecological networks and establishing industrial symbiosis networks between waste by-products of industrial sectors.
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