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张美存,程田,多立安,赵树兰.微生物菌剂对草坪植物高羊茅生长与土壤酶活性的影响.生态学报,2017,37(14):4763~4769 本文二维码信息
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微生物菌剂对草坪植物高羊茅生长与土壤酶活性的影响
Effects of microbial agents on the growth of turfgrass Festuca arundinacea and soil enzyme activity
投稿时间:2016-04-20  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201604200743
关键词生活垃圾堆肥  微生物菌剂  高羊茅  土壤酶活性
Key Wordsmunicipal solid waste compost  microbial agents  Festuca arundinacea  soil enzyme activities
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31470548);天津市科技支撑计划重点项目(13ZCZDNC00200)
作者单位E-mail
张美存 天津市动植物抗性重点实验室, 天津师范大学生命科学学院, 天津 300387  
程田 天津市动植物抗性重点实验室, 天津师范大学生命科学学院, 天津 300387  
多立安 天津市动植物抗性重点实验室, 天津师范大学生命科学学院, 天津 300387  
赵树兰 天津市动植物抗性重点实验室, 天津师范大学生命科学学院, 天津 300387 zhaosl_tjnu@126.com 
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摘要:
从生活垃圾堆肥中分离出放线菌、枯草芽孢杆菌和苏云金芽孢杆菌,通过形态学和染色鉴定,分别以微生物单菌剂施入到草坪土壤基质中,研究了几种微生物菌剂对高羊茅生长与土壤酶活性的影响。结果表明:3种微生物菌剂处理可以显著提高高羊茅株高、生物量和叶绿素含量(P<0.01或P<0.05),促进了高羊茅的生长。同时,施加不同的微生物菌剂对于土壤蔗糖酶、脲酶、过氧化氢酶、多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶活性均有显著的增强作用,其中放线菌处理土壤脲酶和多酚氧化酶分别是对照的8.38倍和20.6倍。因此,从堆肥中得到的3种微生物菌剂均可有效提高土壤酶活性,改善植物根际微生态环境,提高了土壤肥力和养分的利用率,促进了草坪植物生长,改善草坪质量。该研究可为微生物菌剂在草坪建植体系中的应用提供依据。
Abstract:
Turfgrass plays a vital role in beautifying the environment, purifying the air, conserving soil and water, and providing recreation sites for people. However, turfgrass growth is limited by environmental factors and management conditions. It is well known that beneficial microbial agents can improve soil structure and nutrient status and enhance the activity of soil enzymes, thereby promoting plant growth. Three types of microbial communities, actinomycetes, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus thuringiensis, play a role in promoting plant growth. Municipal solid waste (MSW) compost consists of a rich variety of rapid succession microbial communities, the type and population size of which depend on the composition and content of organic matter in the compost and the interaction among the microorganisms. Microorganisms can be extracted from MSW compost and have a potentially broad application. In the present study, the aforementioned three types of microbial communities were extracted from compost, identified through morphological characteristics and staining, and then applied to a turfgrass medium. The effects of microbial agents on the growth of the turfgrass (Festuca arundinacea) and soil enzyme activity were investigated. The results indicated that each type of microbial agent significantly increased the plant height, biomass, and chlorophyll content of F. arundinacea compared to the controls. On day 30 of the investigation, plant heights were 21.9%, 18.7%, and 29.1% higher in actinomycetes-, B. subtilis-, and B. thuringiensis-inoculated plants than their controls, respectively. The aboveground fresh and dry weights of F. arundinacea inoculated with B. subtilis increased by 57.0% and 40.9%, respectively, compared to the control. A significant enhancement of 60.0% in belowground dry weight was observed in plants inoculated with B. thuringiensis. The total chlorophyll contents of F. arundinacea inoculated with actinomycetes and B. subtilis increased by 52.3% and 36.6%, respectively, compared to their controls. Furthermore, application of microbial agents markedly stimulated the activities of soil enzymes. In soils inoculated with actinomycetes, B. subtilis, and B. thuringiensis, the urease activity increased by 8.38-, 2.77-, and 2.45-fold, respectively; the polyphenol oxidase activity increased by 20.6-, 7.7-, and 8.4-fold, respectively; and the peroxidase activity increased by 3.3-, 4.6-, and 4.3-fold, respectively, compared with their controls. On the basis of the results obtained, we conclude that the three types of microbial communities derived from the compost can effectively increase soil enzyme activities, improve the micro-ecosystem of the plant rhizosphere, and improve soil fertility and nutrient utilization, thereby promoting turfgrass growth and improving turf quality. This study can provide a basis for the utilization of microbial agents in turf establishment.
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