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王成超,杨玉盛,庞雯,洪静.国外生态旅游对当地社区生计的影响研究综述.生态学报,2017,37(16):5556~5564 本文二维码信息
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国外生态旅游对当地社区生计的影响研究综述
A review of ecotourism impacts on livelihoods of indigenous community in foreign countries
投稿时间:2016-05-20  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201605200977
关键词生态旅游  经济影响  社区参与  增权  能力建设
Key Wordsecotourism  economic impact  community participation  empowerment  capacity building
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(41371527)
作者单位E-mail
王成超 福建师范大学地理科学学院, 福州 350007;湿润亚热带生态地理过程教育部重点实验室, 福州 350007 wchc79@163.com 
杨玉盛 福建师范大学地理科学学院, 福州 350007;湿润亚热带生态地理过程教育部重点实验室, 福州 350007  
庞雯 福建师范大学地理科学学院, 福州 350007;湿润亚热带生态地理过程教育部重点实验室, 福州 350007  
洪静 福建师范大学地理科学学院, 福州 350007;湿润亚热带生态地理过程教育部重点实验室, 福州 350007  
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摘要:
生态旅游因具备实现生物多样性保护和减轻贫困双重目标的潜力,成为全球学术界关注的焦点。鉴于生态旅游在影响社区生计方面的研究争议,论文综览国外大量相关文献,在界定生态旅游内涵的基础上,从经济影响、社区参与、能力建设、社会文化和公共设施4个方面系统梳理国外生态旅游对目的地社区生计的影响。研究发现旅游发展对目的地生计的影响存在不确定性,社区资源控制权、旅游收益规模、地方介入旅游产业供应链能力、自身能力、旅游管理等因素对旅游扶贫效应起着关键性作用。最后,对当前研究展开评述并对未来研究提出三点展望,以期为中国未来生态旅游影响研究和生态旅游开发提供借鉴和指导。
Abstract:
Ecotourism has been widely implemented in many underdeveloped countries, since ecotourism has the potential to realize the dual goal of poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation. But ecotourism has become a hotly debated topic since its implementation in underdeveloped countries owing to the mismatch in vision and practice. Proponents of ecotourism considered that ecotourism development could alleviate local poverty by providing a large amount of employment opportunities for community households who were engaged in a variety of activities related to tourism. Critics thought that ecotourism in practice benefited neither conservation nor local communities because of a series of reasons. Thus based on widely reviewing related literature in foreign courtiers, the paper systematically analyzed the ecotourism impacts on livelihoods of indigenous communities. The research contents focused on economic impact, community participation, capacity building, socio-cultural impact, and public infrastructure. The results showed that the ecotourism impacts on rural livelihoods were uncertainty. Several factors, such as community ownership of natural resources, ecotourism revenues, famers' ability, linkage of local industry with tourism, effective management, would play a great role. Finally, three future research prospects, such as referring to Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches framework, dynamic assessment of ecotourism impacts and spatial analysis, political economy analysis of the relationship between ecotourism and community development, were put forward to promote ecotourism impact study and ecotourism development in China.
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