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李晓琼,刘亚珍,梁水清,温远光,周晓果,朱宏光,熊涛,郭文锋.桉树杂交种对桉树枝瘿姬小蜂的抗性变异分析.生态学报,2017,37(18):6157~6166 本文二维码信息
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桉树杂交种对桉树枝瘿姬小蜂的抗性变异分析
Analysis of variable resistance in Eucalyptus hybrids to Leptocybe invasa
投稿时间:2016-06-19  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201606191192
关键词杂交育种  桉树  桉树枝瘿姬小蜂  抗虫性  初生化合物  次生化合物
Key Wordshybrid breeding  Eucalyptus  Leptocybe invasa  herbivore resistance  primary compounds  secondary compounds
基金项目国家自然科学基金(31360458,31460115,31660087);广西农科院科技发展基金(2014YP10,2015YT97);中国博士后基金(2014M552286)
作者单位E-mail
李晓琼 广西大学林学院, 南宁 530001;广西友谊关森林生态系统定位观测研究站, 凭祥 532600  
刘亚珍 广西大学林学院, 南宁 530001;广西友谊关森林生态系统定位观测研究站, 凭祥 532600  
梁水清 广西大学林学院, 南宁 530001;广西友谊关森林生态系统定位观测研究站, 凭祥 532600  
温远光 广西大学林学院, 南宁 530001;广西友谊关森林生态系统定位观测研究站, 凭祥 532600  
周晓果 广西大学林学院, 南宁 530001;广西友谊关森林生态系统定位观测研究站, 凭祥 532600  
朱宏光 广西大学林学院, 南宁 530001;广西友谊关森林生态系统定位观测研究站, 凭祥 532600  
熊涛 广西国有东门林场, 扶绥 532100  
郭文锋 广西农科院广西作物遗传改良生物技术重点开放实验室, 南宁 530007 wenfeng_guo@126.com 
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摘要:
植物种间杂交是一种普遍自然现象,杂交往往造成植物表型及生理变异,从而改变杂种抗虫性。与亲本种相比,杂种抗虫性可能增强或减弱,也有可能处于与亲本相似水平。初生、次生代谢物的质变与量变是引起杂种抗虫性变异的重要原因。近年来,桉树杂交育种已在世界范围内广泛应用并取得了显著成效,桉树杂交种间抗虫性表现参差不齐,因此,桉树是研究杂交种抗虫性变异机制的理想材料。以2个桉树杂交种巨细桉DH201-2、巨尾桉G9及桉树重要害虫桉树枝瘿姬小蜂为研究对象,比较了2个杂交种与其纯亲本种[(巨桉×细叶桉),(巨桉×尾叶桉)]间的抗虫性差异;同时,综合比较了品系间叶片性状(叶片厚度、含水率、比叶面积)、初生化合物(C、N、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白)及次生化合物(总酚、单宁)差异,以研究桉树杂交种抗虫性变异的理化机制。结果表明:DH201-2感染桉树枝瘿姬小蜂的虫瘿数目显著高于其双亲本种,而G9上虫瘿数目显著低于其双亲本种。DH201-2与G9的叶片厚度与巨桉相近,而显著薄于另一亲本种。DH201-2叶片含水率显著高于细叶桉、与巨桉相近;G9叶片含水率则显著低于其双亲本种。相似的是,DH201-2和G9的比叶面积均显著高于其双亲本种。初生化合物方面,DH201-2叶片可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白含量均显著高于其亲本种,N含量则仅高于细叶桉;而G9叶片可溶性蛋白含量虽高于其双亲本种,可溶性糖含量则无显著差异,N含量显著低于其双亲本种。次生化合物方面,DH201-2叶片总酚和单宁含量显著低于其双亲本种,而G9则显著高于其双亲本种。因此,与其亲本种相比,DH201-2感虫性增加,而G9抗虫性增加;与桉树枝瘿姬小蜂发育相关的营养指标(如含水率、可溶性糖、N含量)及次生防御物质(如总酚、缩合单宁)在桉树杂交种组织内的含量差异影响了桉树杂交种对桉树枝瘿姬小蜂的抗性。在全球推行桉树杂交育种且桉树害虫数量逐年增加的大背景下,应加强对桉树杂交种抗虫性机制研究,为选育高抗品系及桉树产业可持续发展提供理论指导。
Abstract:
Interspecific hybridization is a common phenomenon in plants, and it often causes substantial changes in phenotypic and physiological traits, resulting in various resistance abilities to herbivores and pathogens among hybrids. Compared to their parents, hybrids exhibit lower resistance, higher resistance, or intermediate resistance. Qualitative or quantitative changes in primary and secondary compounds in hybrids are important factors affecting their herbivore resistance. Hybrid breeding technology has been widely applied in the Eucalyptus industry, and achieved remarkable success worldwide in recent years. As Eucalyptus hybrids vary in their ability to resist herbivores, they provide an ideal system to investigate the mechanisms underlying herbivore resistance in hybrids. To elucidate the herbivore resistance variance mechanisms, two Eucalyptus hybrids, DH201-2 (E. grandis × E. tereticornis) and G9 (E. grandis × E. urophylla), and an important Eucalyptus pest, Leptocybe invasa, were chosen for study. The resistance of DH201-2, G9, and their pure parental species (E. grandis and E. urophylla, E. grandis and E. tereticornis, respectively) against L. invasa were compared. In parallel, comprehensive measurements were taken to assess differences in leaf traits (leaf thickness, water content, and specific leaf area), primary compounds (C, N, soluble sugar, and soluble protein), and secondary compounds (total phenolics and condensed tannins) among the two hybrids and their parental species. The results showed that gall number on DH201-2 was significantly more than on its two paternal species, while gall number on G9 was significantly less than on its two parental species. Leaf thickness of DH201-2 and G9 were similar to E. grandis, but their leaves were thinner than those of the other parental species. Leaf water content in DH201-2 was significantly higher than that in E. tereticornis but similar to that in E. grandis, whereas G9 contained significantly lower water content than its two parental species. Similarly, both the specific leaf area of DH201-2 and G9 were significantly larger than their parental species. Considering the primary compounds, DH201-2 contained significantly more soluble sugar and soluble protein than its parental species, and more N than E. tereticornis. Although the content of soluble protein was significantly higher in G9, soluble sugar and N content were similar and lower than those in its two parental species, respectively. Both total phenolics and condensed tannins in DH201-2 were significantly lower than those in its parental species; however, they were significantly higher in G9 than in its two parental species. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the respective parental species, DH201-2 is more susceptible and G9 is more resistant to L. invasa. Different expressions of nutritional substances that are closely related to the development of L. invasa (i.e., water content, soluble sugar, and N content), and secondary defensive substances such as total phenolics and condensed tannins in Eucalyptus hybrids, together generate variable resistance abilities to L. invasa. In the context of the wide development of Eucalyptus hybrid breeding and the gradual increase in Eucalyptus pests over the years, more research focusing on the resistance variance mechanisms underlying Eucalyptus hybrids is required. These studies could provide valuable scientific guidance not only for screening herbivore-resistant hybrids through crossbreeding but also for the sustainable development of future Eucalyptus plantations.
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