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刘鹏,张微微.官山自然保护区白颈长尾雉季节性生境选择.生态学报,2017,37(18):6005~6013 本文二维码信息
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官山自然保护区白颈长尾雉季节性生境选择
Seasonal changes in habitat selection of Syrmaticus ellioti in Guanshan National Nature Reserve
投稿时间:2016-06-23  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201606231229
关键词白颈长尾雉  生境选择  判别分析  官山自然保护区
Key WordsSyrmaticus ellioti  habitat selection  discriminant analysis  Guanshan Nature Reserve
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31360521);江西省科技计划项目(2013BBG70004,2013BAB214013);江西省教育厅项目(GJJ13277)
作者单位E-mail
刘鹏 江西省林业科学院, 南昌 330013  
张微微 江西农业大学林学院, 江西农业大学野生动植物资源保护研究中心, 南昌 330045 zhangweiwei_nefu@163.com 
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摘要:
2009年10月至2010年11月,2015年7月至11月在江西官山自然保护区对白颈长尾雉不同生活史阶段的(繁殖期、育雏期、繁殖后期)生境选择进行了比较研究。调查了6条样线上的126个样方,选取与其生境相关的17个因子进行了观察与测量。研究结果表明,不同生活史阶段各生境选择样方负荷绝对值较大的因子在各主成分中的序位不尽相同,即生境选择的主要生态因子随生活史阶段而变化。卡方检验及单因素方差分析,结果显示,各生活史阶段,白颈长尾雉对林型、坡向、坡度、灌木高度、草本高度和水源距离6个生态因子上无显著差异(P ≥ 0.05),其余11个生态因子两两之间存在显著差异或极显著差异。典则判别结果显示,白颈长尾雉在不同生活史阶段在生境选择上存在一定程度的重叠,又有较为明显的差异。逐步判别表明,在不同生活史阶段,白颈长尾雉生境选择差异上有一系列的生态因子发挥作用,依照贡献值的大小依次为草本数量、落叶层盖度、乔木盖度、海拔和乔木数量,由这5个变量构成的方程对生境选择差异的正确区分率为80.3%。繁殖期和越冬期食物条件是影响白颈长尾雉生境选择的主要因素,而育雏期则为隐蔽条件。
Abstract:
Habitat selection of Elliot's pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) was studied in spring, summer, autumn and winter in Guanshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China, from October 2009 to November 2010 and July to November 2015. Seventeen ecological factors were measured across 126 sites used by S. ellioti by direct observation in six sampling transects. We identified 27 sites used in spring, 46 used in summer, and 53 used in autumn and winter. The results of principal component analysis revealed that the key factors influencing the habitat selection of S. ellioti differed as the seasons changed: six principal components explained 77.54% of the total variance in habitat selection during spring, and the first principal component, accounting for 19.88% of the variance, was positively related to herbage coverage, herbage quantity, and herbage height; seven principal components explained 74.68% of the total variance in habitat selection during summer, and the first principal components, accounting for 14.56% of the variance, was positively related to arbor quantity; and seven principal components explained 78.02% of the total variance in habitat selection during autumn and winter, and the first principal component, accounting for 18.29% of the variance, was positively related to shrub coverage, herbage coverage, herbage species, and herbage quantity. Six ecological factors (vegetation type, slope orientation, slope degree, shrub height, herbage height, and distance to water) had no significant effect on habitat selection (P ≥ 0.05). Other ecological factors showed significant differences between any two seasons, as determined by the X2 test and one-way ANOVA. The Fisher linear function discriminated S. ellioti seasonal habitats as follows: Fspring = -0.043×Herbage quantity+0.088×Leaf litter coverage+0.241×Arbor coverage+0.039×Elevation-0.043×Arbor quantity-21.787; Fsummer = -0.024×Herbage quantity+0.119×Leaf litter coverage+0.272×Arbor coverage+0.039×Elevation-0.024×Arbor quantity-27.629; Fautumn and winter = 0.099×Herbage quantity+0.159×Leaf litter coverage+0.208×Arbor coverage+0.031×Elevation+0.099×Arbor quantity-22.895. The canonical scores revealed that the habitat selection of S. ellioti showed clear differences but also some overlap at different life stages. Stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that herbage quantity, leaf litter coverage, arbor coverage, elevation, and arbor quantity were the critical factors distinguishing habitat selection during the different seasons. The predicted classification accuracy of the model was 80.3%. Availability of food was the primary factor influencing the habitat selection of S. ellioti during the breeding and wintering seasons; however, availability of shelter was the main factor during the brood period.
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