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王爱兰,李维卫.青藏高原濒危植物唐古特大黄的遗传多样性.生态学报,2017,37(21):7251~7257 本文二维码信息
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青藏高原濒危植物唐古特大黄的遗传多样性
Genetic diversity of an endangered species, Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae), on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
投稿时间:2016-08-09  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201608091635
关键词唐古特大黄  trnS-G序列  遗传多样性  基因流
Key WordsRheum tanguticum  trnS-G region  genetic diversity  gene flow
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(31000104)
作者单位E-mail
王爱兰 鲁东大学生命科学学院, 烟台 264025  
李维卫 鲁东大学学报编辑部, 烟台 264025 lwwal@163.com 
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摘要:
唐古特大黄(Rheum tanguticum)是中国传统的中藏药材,近几年由于生境的严重破坏,已濒临灭绝,并被列入濒危植物名单。为了探索唐古特大黄物种濒危的原因并保护其野生资源,本研究采集了9个居群87个个体的唐古特大黄样本,基于该物种的叶绿体基因trnS-G序列对其进行了遗传多样性研究。结果表明,唐古特大黄物种具有较高的遗传多样性水平(Ht=0.694),其中95.97%的遗传分化来自于居群间(GST=0.960),4.03%的遗传分化来自于居群内(Hs=0.028)。AMOVA分析也显示唐古特大黄居群间基因流较小(Nm=0.01),存在较高的遗传分化(FST=0.9631)。唐古特大黄较高的遗传多样性水平可能与该物种较长的进化史和生活史有关,居群间较高的遗传分化可能与高山地区特殊的地理环境和人类活动有关。根据研究结果,建议对唐古特大黄所有野生居群进行就地保护,同时收集种质资源开展异地繁殖工作,以保护物种的遗传多样性,维持其进化潜力。
Abstract:
Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae), an endangered traditional Chinese and Tibetan medicines, is distributed in the Tibetan Plateau. To investigate endangered reasons and protect the wild resources, we collected 87 individuals fromnine populations of R. tanguticum, and estimated the genetic diversity of this speciesbased on the cpDNAtrnS-G region.The results showed that there was high genetic diversity within this species. The length of the total trnS-G region of the 87 individuals ranged from 944 to 954bp, and covered 965 nucleotide positions after being aligned. Variations were detected in 23 nucleotides, including 13 nucleotide substitutions and 10 indel sites. On the basis of these nucleotide mutations, a total of four nucleotide haplotypes (H1-H4) were identified. The development of a parsimony network showed that the four haplotypes made up a shallow star genetic tree. Haplotypes H1, H2, and H4 were located at the tips of the network, representing recent haplotypes.Haplotype H3 and three missing haplotypes were in the center of the star network.Moreover,since haplotype H3 had the highest frequency, it was identified as an ancestral haplotype.The total diversity (Ht) among the individuals collected was 0.694, indicating a high genetic diversity. In addition, a high level of population differentiation was observed (GST=0.960), as determined by PERMUT analysis, showing 95.97% genetic differentiation between populations, whereas the remainder of the total genetic variation (4.03%) was attributed to within-population diversity (Hs=0.028). AMOVA analysis (FST=0.9631) also indicated that the genetic diversity among populations was greater than that within populations. The value for gene flow was fairly low (Nm=0.01), indicating a limited gene flow between populations, which is consistent with the findings of PERMUT and AMOVA analysis.The NJ tree of populations based on genetic distance revealed three supported groups. However, populations with close geographic distance did not cluster together, indicating that there was no direct relationship between the geographic distances and genetic distances of the nine populations, which was confirmed by the Mantel test(r=0.2461, p=0.2060). The high genetic diversity of the examined populations is probably associated with the long evolutionary history and life history of R.tanguticum.The large genetic differentiation between populations might be related tothe alpine geographical environment and human activity. Therefore, we suggest that more wild populations with high genetic diversity should be protected by an in-situ conservation program at sites distant from human activity. We also recommend the collection and conservation of seeds from populations with rich genetic diversity for the ex-situ conservation of genetic stocks and their propagation. These conservation measures will certainly provide the basic resources required to increase the number of populations of this species and extend its range of distribution.
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