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王蕾,张怡婷,张圣新,范德玲,汪贞,石利利,刘济宁.环境条件对伸展摇蚊实验种群繁育的影响.生态学报,2017,37(21):7152~7160 本文二维码信息
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环境条件对伸展摇蚊实验种群繁育的影响
Effects of environmental conditions on the reproduction and development of Chironomus tentans(Diptera)
投稿时间:2016-08-10  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201608101639
关键词伸展摇蚊  温度  光照强度  繁殖发育  种群动态
Key WordsChironomus tentans  temperature  light intensity  reproduction and development  population dynamics
基金项目江苏省青年自然科学基金项目(BK20151100)
作者单位E-mail
王蕾 环境保护部南京环境保护研究所, 南京 210042  
张怡婷 环境保护部南京环境保护研究所, 南京 210042  
张圣新 环境保护部南京环境保护研究所, 南京 210042  
范德玲 环境保护部南京环境保护研究所, 南京 210042  
汪贞 环境保护部南京环境保护研究所, 南京 210042  
石利利 环境保护部南京环境保护研究所, 南京 210042  
刘济宁 环境保护部南京环境保护研究所, 南京 210042 ljn@nies.org 
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摘要:
以伸展摇蚊为研究对象,重点考察了温度、光强对各生命阶段存活率和发育速率、成虫性别比和繁殖力以及种群动态的综合影响。通过F检验不同温度相同光照条件下摇蚊卵、幼虫和蛹的存活率的回归方程和和回归系数,发现了在相同的光强(800 lx或2000 lx)条件下,15-35 ℃温度范围内,摇蚊幼虫和蛹两种形态存活率与温度之间均呈显著相关,而幼虫期摇蚊的存活率比蛹期更易受温度影响,但是,温度变化并没有显著影响卵的存活率;且15 ℃和35 ℃两个极端温度不适合摇蚊的生存和繁育。其次通过正交试验,对在2个温度(15 ℃和30 ℃)和2种光强(800 lx和2000 lx)两种因素组合作用下的摇蚊存活率和发育速率进行极差分析和双因素方差分析,得到伸展摇蚊种群繁育的最佳条件为25 ℃,800 lx的结论,且两种因素对于摇蚊成虫的雌雄比影响并不显著,但是温度对三者(存活率、发育速率和雌雄比)的影响远大于光强。最后通过单因素方差分析关于不同光照和温度下对成虫繁殖力的结果, 以及相同光照和温度下不同湿度(45%、65%、85%和95%)对成虫繁殖力的结果,总结出在25-30 ℃,800 lx光强下伸展摇蚊维持良好生命活力、顺利完成繁殖发育过程,85%-95%的相对湿度可以使羽化成虫保持较高的产卵水平。并根据所观察的种群生殖力资料计算得到相应温度(25 ℃和30 ℃)和光照条件(800 lx和2000 lx)组合下的实验种群繁殖特征生命表。结果表明在800 lx光强、25-30 ℃条件下,摇蚊能维持较高的种群净增殖率(R0)与内禀增长率(rm)。综上所述,25 ℃温度,800 lx光强和85%的湿度的条件更适合伸展摇蚊种群繁育。此结果为建立伸展摇蚊室内繁育的标准化条件及相应的种群发展规律和构建本土摇蚊种的毒性测试方法奠定了基础。
Abstract:
The comprehensive influence of survival rate, growth rate of each life stage, adult sex ratio and fertility, and population dynamics of the experimental populations of Chironomus tentans were observed under different conditions of temperature and light intensity. Under the condition of different temperatures and same light intensities, the regression equation and regression coefficient of the survival rates of the eggs, larvae, and pupae of C. tentans were tested by F-test. The results showed that the survival rates of the larvae and pupae of C. tentans were significantly correlated with temperature, and the survival rate of larval stage was more likely to be affected by temperature than that of the pupal stage. However, the changes in temperature showed no significant effect on the survival rate of eggs. Two extreme temperatures (15 and 35 ℃) were not found suitable for the survival of C. tentans. Secondly, through two combined factors (two temperatures: 15 and 30 ℃ and two light intensities: 800 and 2000 lx) of orthogonal experiments, we concluded that the best breeding conditions of C. tentans were 25 ℃ and 800 lx. Moreover, these two factors showed no significant influence on the female male ratio of C. tentans. However, the influence of temperature on the three aspects (survival rate, growth rate, and female male ratio) was greater than that of light intensity. At last, we performed the single factor analysis of variance of the results of adult fecundity under different conditions (two temperatures: 15 and 30 ℃; two light intensities: 800 and 2000 lx; and four relative humidity levels: 45%, 65%, 85%, and 95%). The results showed that C. tentans can accomplish complete reproductive development under the conditions of 25-30 ℃ and 800 lx. Additionally, a relative humidity between 85% and 95% was another necessary condition to guarantee high oviposition rate. Furthermore, the life tables of the experimental population of C. tentans at two temperatures (25 and 30 ℃) and two light intensities (800 and 2000 lx) were established in our laboratory. The net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) reached high levels under the conditions of 25-30 ℃ and 800 lx. To sum up, the conditions of 25 ℃, 800 lx, and 85% relative humidity were found to be optimal for C. tentans breeding. These results laid the foundation for establishing the standard conditions for the indoor breeding of C. tentans, corresponding population development rule, and toxicity testing method of local Chironomus species.
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