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孙才志,张智雄.中国水生态足迹广度、深度评价及空间格局.生态学报,2017,37(21):7048~7060 本文二维码信息
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中国水生态足迹广度、深度评价及空间格局
Assessment of water ecological footprint size, depth, and spatial pattern in China
投稿时间:2016-08-10  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201608101640
关键词水生态足迹广度  水生态足迹深度  空间格局
Key Wordswater ecological footprint size  water ecological footprint depth  spatial pattern
基金项目国家社会科学基金重点项目(16AJY009)
作者单位E-mail
孙才志 辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院, 大连 116029;辽宁师范大学海洋经济与可持续发展研究中心, 大连 116029 suncaizhi@lnnu.edu.cn 
张智雄 辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院, 大连 116029  
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摘要:
运用生态足迹方法对水资源进行流量资本和存量资本区分,测算分析了中国31个省市1997-2014年的水生态足迹广度与深度。结果显示:①中国的水生态足迹广度受年际水资源量丰枯影响,总体呈波动趋势;各省市的水生态足迹广度存在着明显差异,南方地区水生态足迹广度普遍大于北方地区;②研究期内,中国的水生态足迹深度只有1998年为1,其余年份的水资源流量资本已不能满足人类生产生活的需求,需要消耗水资源存量资本;各省市之间水生态足迹深度相差较大,整体上北方高南方低,其中14个省份18年的平均水生态足迹深度为1,平均水生态足迹深度最高的地区是宁夏的308.12;③运用空间自相关方法对31个省市的水生态足迹广度和深度进行分析得出,中国省际水生态足迹广度与深度均存在明显的空间集聚现象。水生态足迹广度H-H集聚地区主要集中在中国南方地区,水生态足迹深度H-H集聚地区主要集中在中国北方地区。通过对全国水生态足迹广度与深度的测度分析为水生态足迹分析提供新的研究方法,同时也为区域水资源可持续利用提供理论依据。
Abstract:
Water is an important resource for our life and production, and the development of human beings and society are closely related. The accelerating growth in water consumption and exploration is creating serious water scarcity problems in China. Ecological economist William Rees first formally presented the concept of the Ecological Footprint in the 1990s. With the development of this research, scholars attempt to introduce new methods or indicators to improve research methods into the ecological footprint. In particular, Niccolucci and Wackernagel put forward two indicators of a 3D model footprint depth and size, and the model is a temporal-spatial approach that more clearly explains the differences between human demand for natural capital flows and stocks. The water ecological footprint was derived from the ecological footprint concept, and represents the amount of water resources productive land areas still need, in terms of a the water resources account. In this paper, we applied footprint size and depth to the sustainable use of water resources. Using the ecological footprint method to distinguish between flow and the stock of water resources, this method was used to analyze water ecological footprint size and depth among 31 provinces in China during the period from 1997 to 2014. The results showed the following three points: 1) The depth of the water ecological footprint was affected by water resource quantity change between continuous high flow years and low flow years. They exhibit a fluctuating trend in the interior nationwide, and the water ecological footprint size of different provinces differ with footprint size higher in the south than in the north. 2) During 1997-2014, the water ecological footprint depth was 1 in 1998, and in other years flow capital could not meet people's needs, and an increase in the stock capital of water was needed. The water ecological footprint depth exhibited a large difference between countries, but it was obvious that it was lower in the south than in the north. Among these, the average size of the water ecological footprint was 1 in the other 14 provinces and this lasted for 18 years, and included Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang, and Qinghai, with the highest of in Ningxia, being 308.12. 3) We analyzed the water ecological footprint size for 31 provinces using the global spatial autocorrelation method. In China, the water ecological footprint size and depth existed as an obvious spatial agglomeration spatial cluster feature. The water ecological footprint size had a H-H (high-high) correlation in provinces mainly in southern China, and in L-L (low-low) correlation provinces in the north of China. The water ecological footprint depth was in H-H correlation in provinces mainly in the north of China, and in L-L correlation mainly in the south of China. This provided a new method to analyze the water ecological footprint through analyzing the water ecological footprint size and depth, and at the same time, it provided a theoretical basis for regional sustainable utilization of water resources.
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