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杨升,陈友铃,吴文珊,陈晓娟,包甜甜,叶洁芬,宋天宇,吴怡祾,周莲香,曾喜育.薜荔榕小蜂对薜荔和爱玉子雌花期榕果挥发物的行为反应.生态学报,2017,37(21):7161~7169 本文二维码信息
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薜荔榕小蜂对薜荔和爱玉子雌花期榕果挥发物的行为反应
Behavioral responses of Wiebesia pumilae to the female phase fig volatiles of Ficus pumila L. var. pumila and Ficus pumila L. var. awkeotsang
投稿时间:2016-09-07  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201609071821
关键词雌雄异株  雌花期  变种  隐存种  Y型嗅觉仪
Key Wordsdioecious  female phase  variant  cryptic species  Y-tube olfactometer
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(31670431,31270440);福建省自然科学基金资助项目(2017J01440);福建师范大学生物学拔尖人才班科研项目;福建师范大学大学生创新训练计划项目
作者单位E-mail
杨升 福建师范大学生命科学学院, 福建省发育与神经学生物学重点实验室, 福州 350117  
陈友铃 福建师范大学生命科学学院, 福建省发育与神经学生物学重点实验室, 福州 350117  
吴文珊 福建师范大学生命科学学院, 福建省发育与神经学生物学重点实验室, 福州 350117 wuwenshan@126.com 
陈晓娟 福建师范大学生命科学学院, 福建省发育与神经学生物学重点实验室, 福州 350117  
包甜甜 福建师范大学生命科学学院, 福建省发育与神经学生物学重点实验室, 福州 350117  
叶洁芬 福建师范大学生命科学学院, 福建省发育与神经学生物学重点实验室, 福州 350117  
宋天宇 福建师范大学生命科学学院, 福建省发育与神经学生物学重点实验室, 福州 350117  
吴怡祾 福建师范大学生命科学学院, 福建省发育与神经学生物学重点实验室, 福州 350117  
周莲香 台湾大学生态学与演化生物学研究所, 台北 10617  
曾喜育 台湾中兴大学森林与自然资源学系, 台中 60004  
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摘要:
薜荔和爱玉子均属雌雄异株桑科榕属植物,两者互为原变种与变种的关系,分别与薜荔传粉小蜂和爱玉子传粉小蜂(二者互为隐存种)建立了专性共生关系,榕树榕果挥发物在维系传粉小蜂与其寄主的共生关系上起着重要作用。利用Y型嗅觉仪测定薜荔榕小蜂(薜荔和爱玉子的传粉小蜂)对薜荔和爱玉子雌花期榕果挥发物的行为反应。结果表明:(1)雌花期果型的大小对薜荔榕小蜂行为反应无显著影响,薜荔大、小果型雌花期雌(雄)榕果挥发物对其传粉小蜂均具有强烈的吸引作用;(2)榕果挥发物浓度影响薜荔榕小蜂行为反应,薜荔、爱玉子雌花期雌(雄)榕果挥发物对其传粉小蜂的吸引作用均可能存在阈值反应,即榕果挥发物浓度未超过阈值时,雌花期榕果挥发物对传粉小蜂的吸引作用与挥发物浓度成正相关关系,而一旦超过阈值,榕果挥发物对传粉蜂的吸引作用显著下降,表明寄主榕果挥发物浓度影响传粉小蜂的寄主定位;(3)薜荔传粉小蜂对低浓度爱玉子雌花期雌(雄)榕果挥发物、爱玉子传粉小蜂对低浓度薜荔雌花期雌(雄)榕果挥发物均既无趋向也无驱避行为;薜荔传粉小蜂对高浓度的爱玉子雌花期雌(雄)榕果挥发物表现为显著的驱避行为,而爱玉子传粉小蜂对高浓度薜荔雌(雄)雌花期榕果挥发物表现为显著的趋向行为,因此,薜荔传粉小蜂与爱玉子传粉小蜂存在寄主专一性不对称现象,爱玉子传粉小蜂进入薜荔雌(雄)果内传粉或产卵的可能性较大,而福州地区的薜荔传粉小蜂可能难以进入爱玉子雌(雄)果内传粉或产卵。本研究结果将为榕-蜂共生体系的化学生态学理论研究以及爱玉子栽培提供科学依据。
Abstract:
Ficus pumila L. var. pumila (FPP) and F. pumila L. var. awkeotsang (Makino) Corner (FPA) are evergreen climbing dioecious fig plants, the relationship that between two kinds of fig trees is the original variant and variant. FPP and FPA are respectively pollinated by their own obligated pollinator, and the relationship between two pollinating wasps is determined by the cryptic species. FPP and FPA built obligate symbiotic relationships with their specific pollinating wasps. Figs volatiles play an important role in the maintenance of pollinating wasps and their host symbiotic relationship. Pollinating wasps can follow the volatiles of specific host female phase figs, and enter figs for oviposition and pollination. In this study, we used a Y-tube olfactometer to test the behavioral responses of Wiebesia pumilae (Hill) Wiebes, the pollinating wasps of FPP and FPA, to the female phase fig volatiles of FPP and FPA. The results showed that: (1) the size of female phase figs had no significant effect on the behavioral responses of W. pumilae; both female and male receptive phases of large and small type figs of FFP volatiles had a strong attractiveness to its obligate pollinator; (2) the concentration of fig volatiles had a significant effect on W. pumilae behavior, both female and male receptive phase figs of FPA and FPP volatiles had a threshold response phenomenon on their obligate pollinators; when the volatile concentrations did not exceed the threshold value with the increase in volatile concentration, the attraction of pollinators increased; however, if the volatile concentration exceeded the threshold value, the attraction of pollinators decreased; (3) the pollinating wasps of FPP to both female and male low concentration female phase fig volatiles of FPA and pollinating wasps of FPA to both male and female low concentration female phase figs volatiles of FPP were neither attracted nor deterred. The pollinating wasps of FPA showed significant preference for both male and female high concentration female phase fig volatiles of FPP, whereas the pollinator of FPP was deterred by both male and female high concentration phase figs volatiles of FPA. Therefore, the pollinating wasps of FPA and FPP showed asymmetric host specificity. It is possible that the pollinating wasps of FPA enter female and male phase figs of FPP for pollination and oviposition, respectively; however, in Fuzhou, it is difficult for the pollinating wasps of FPP to enter the female and male phase figs of FPA for pollination and oviposition, respectively. Our results will provide the scientific basis for the studies on chemical signaling mechanisms of fig-wasp mutualism and FPA cultivation.
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