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任辉,田恬,杨宇峰,王庆.珠江口南沙河涌浮游植物群落结构时空变化及其与环境因子的关系.生态学报,2017,37(22):7729~7740 本文二维码信息
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珠江口南沙河涌浮游植物群落结构时空变化及其与环境因子的关系
Spatial and temporal distribution of phytoplankton community and its relationship with environment factors in Nansha's Rivers, Pearl River estuary
投稿时间:2016-09-13  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201609131852
关键词珠江口  河涌  浮游植物  聚类分析  冗余分析
Key WordsPearl River estuary  urban river  phytoplankton  cluster analysis  redundancy analysis (RDA)
基金项目国家自然科学基金(U1301235,41503072);公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201403008);广东省自然科学基金(S2012040006824);高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(20124401120013)
作者单位E-mail
任辉 暨南大学生态学系, 广州 510632;水体富营养化与赤潮防治广东省教育厅重点实验室, 广州 510632;热带亚热带水生态工程教育部工程研究中心, 广州 510632  
田恬 暨南大学生态学系, 广州 510632;水体富营养化与赤潮防治广东省教育厅重点实验室, 广州 510632;热带亚热带水生态工程教育部工程研究中心, 广州 510632  
杨宇峰 暨南大学生态学系, 广州 510632;水体富营养化与赤潮防治广东省教育厅重点实验室, 广州 510632;热带亚热带水生态工程教育部工程研究中心, 广州 510632  
王庆 暨南大学生态学系, 广州 510632;水体富营养化与赤潮防治广东省教育厅重点实验室, 广州 510632;热带亚热带水生态工程教育部工程研究中心, 广州 510632 wq2010@jnu.edu.cn 
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摘要:
随着城市生态健康理念的提出,城市河涌生态健康也受到了前所未有的关注。为更好的了解河涌的水环境和浮游植物现状,于2015年3月至2016年2月对珠江口南沙河涌8个站位水环境和浮游植物群落结构进行调查。结果显示:共发现浮游植物164种(属),隶属7门73属,其中以绿藻种类最多,达33属79种,占48.17%;硅藻次之,17属41种,占25%。优势种为梅尼小环藻(Cyclotella meneghiniana)、假鱼腥藻属(Pseudanabaena sp.)和小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)。浮游植物细胞密度在0.19×106-101.34×106个/L内变动,呈现单峰型,在4月发生拟菱形弓形藻(Schroederia nitzschioides)水华,14涌密度高达87.38×106个/L,随后因强降雨细胞密度骤降。浮游植物群落的季节演替基本符合PEG(Plankton Ecology Group)模型,从冬季的硅藻,到春夏季的绿藻,再到秋季的蓝藻。One-way ANOVA分析显示,各月份浮游植物细胞密度差异显著(P < 0.01)。Pearson相关性分析表明绿藻细胞丰度变化主导着浮游植物总丰度的变化(r=0.454,P < 0.01)。运用Margalef物种丰富度指数、Shannon物种多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数对水体进行评价表明,调查水体呈中度污染。相关加权营养状态指数表明,河涌全年处于富营养化状态。浮游植物聚类分析表明,时间异质性较高,总体相似性较低;空间上相似性较高,人为活动可能是导致空间差异的关键因子。冗余分析显示,叶绿素a、溶解氧、盐度、水温、总氮和pH与浮游植物群落结构关系最为密切。pH对硅藻门浮游植物影响较大,碱性条件适宜直链藻生长,春季水华形成的驱动因子是盐度、温度和总氮。
Abstract:
The concept of urban ecological health has increased concern over the ecological health of urban rivers. Therefore, in order to study the spatial and temporal distribution of phytoplankton communities and the water quality of Nansha's rivers, Pearl River estuary, eight sites were sampled on a monthly basis from March 2015 to February 2016. During this period, 164 phytoplankton species, from 7 phyla and 73 genera, were recorded. The most diverse group was the green algae (79 spp., 33 genera), which accounted for 48.17% of the total recorded species, followed by diatoms (41 spp., 17 genera), which accounted for 25% of the total recorded species, and the dominant species included Cyclotella meneghiniana, Pseudanabaena sp., and Chlorella vulgaris. The overall abundance ranged from 0.19×106 to 101.34×106 cells/L and exhibited a unimodal pattern of seasonal variation. The peak abundance corresponded to an algal bloom that occurred in April 2015, during which the dominant species, Schroederia nitzschioides, reached 87.38×106 cells/L at site 14 (S14) and then rapidly decreased over the next month. The seasonal succession of the phytoplankton community structure in Nansha's rivers conformed to the Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) Model, with Chlorophyta dominating during the spring and summer, Cyanophyta dominating during the end of summer and autumn, and Bacillariophyta dominating during the winter. The temporal variation of phytoplankton density was significant (P < 0.01), as was the positive correlation of the proportion of Chlorophyta cells in total phytoplankton abundance (r=0.454, P < 0.01). The Shannon-Wiener diversity, Margalef abundance, Pielou evenness, and trophic state indices indicated that Nansha's rivers were experiencing moderate eutrophication. Cluster analysis indicated that the phytoplankton communities possessed high temporal heterogeneity but low spatial heterogeneity. Human activities maybe the key factor for spatial differences. Meanwhile, redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that chlorophyll a, salinity, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, total nitrogen, and pH were most closely related to the phytoplankton community structure, and pH significantly affected the abundance and species of Bacillariophyta, with alkaline environments benefiting Melosira, in particular. Salinity, water temperature, and total nitrogen were the driving factors of the spring algal bloom.
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