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赵海霞,蒋晓威,刘燕.基于水生态健康维护的空间开发管制分区研究——以巢湖环湖地区为例.生态学报,2018,38(3):866~875 本文二维码信息
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基于水生态健康维护的空间开发管制分区研究——以巢湖环湖地区为例
Spatial management zoning based on the water eco-health: A case study of the areas around Chaohu Lake
投稿时间:2016-10-13  修订日期:2017-11-21
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201610132467
关键词水生态健康  水生态敏感性  水生态压力  管制分区  巢湖环湖地区
Key Wordswater eco-health  water ecological sensitiveness  water ecological pressure  spatial management zoning  the areas around Chaohu Lake
基金项目国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07501002-008);国家自然科学基金(71573250)
作者单位E-mail
赵海霞 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008 hxzhao@niglas.ac.cn 
蒋晓威 江苏省环境科学研究院, 南京 210036  
刘燕 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
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摘要:
水生态健康已成为区域环境管理的新目标及国内外生态环境领域研究的热点。在快速工业化和城市化推动下,巢湖环湖地区出现了水质恶化、植被消亡与生态系统功能退化等水生态健康问题,旨在通过环湖地区的空间开发管制分区,处理好开发与保护的关系,实现环湖地区水生态系统持续、健康发展。应用ArcGIS空间分析平台,构建由水生态敏感性和水生态压力组成的分区评价指标体系,以500 m×500 m网格为评价单元,通过单要素与多要素的综合评价,借助二维关联矩阵分析,进行空间开发管制分区,据此提出差别化的区域开发与生态环境保护导向。结果表明:巢湖环湖地区从空间单元上可确定为低敏低压区、低敏高压区、高敏低压区、高敏高压区4种类型区;水生态敏感性较高的环湖主要入湖河流两侧,以加强生态修复和环境保护为主;滨湖新区北部、巢湖市区及各镇镇中心水生态压力较大,迫切需要转型升级,实施严格的环境准入条件和污染排放标准;虽然环湖乡镇大部分地区水生态敏感性和水生态压力相对较低,可依托本地优势资源,因地制宜、错位发展,但严格控制新增污染物排放、维护水生态健康发展是首要任务。
Abstract:
The water eco-health has become an important goal of regional environment management and a new trend of eco-environmental fields in China and abroad. In the areas around Chaohu Lake of China, the rapid industrialization and urbanization have led to ecological health problems, such as water quality deterioration, vegetation degradation and ecosystem degeneration. This paper aims to give some advices on achieving the healthy development of water ecosystem based on spatial development and regulation zoning in the areas around Chaohu Lake. After building the evaluation index system composed of water ecological sensitivity and water ecological pressure, this paper discusses the methods of spatial zoning which is related to both regional development and ecological environment protection, based on 500 m×500 m grid units and ArcGIS software, as well as the comprehensive evaluation of single factor and multifactor analysis. The areas around Chaohu Lake, serving as a case study, are divided into four types by the method of two-dimensional quadrant analysis, namely, high-sensitivity and high-pressure area, high-sensitivity and low-pressure area, low-sensitivity and high-pressure area, and low-sensitivity and low-pressure area, representing 2.66%, 20.46%, 13.01 and 63.87% of the total area respectively. Different measures are put forward according to different types of areas. Firstly, the areas around Chaohu Lake generally should adopt a policy on low density development prioritizing the ecological and cultural protection. As an important drinking water source and ecological barrier areas in Chaohu and Hefei city, the areas around Chaohu Lake is expected to give a strict protection of the natural reserve, existing mountain, water and wetland landscape, forest parks, scenic areas, lake shelterbelts and so on. Secondly, learning from previous lessons on the development models of lakeside districts in other regions and countries, the development model in the areas around Chaohu Lake should adopt appropriate measures suiting local conditions:the belts along the main rivers into Chaohu Lake have the higher sensitivity to water environment, are not suitable for large-scale development and construction, and need to strengthen the ecological restoration and environmental protection. Thirdly, the northern Binhu new district of Hefei city, Chaohu city and their towns have higher pressures on water ecosystem from high-density development activities, is in urgent needs of the model transformation and structure upgrade in industrial and urban development, and implements strict access standards to environmental and pollution emissions. Lastly, although some regions with lower ecological sensitivity and pressure can adopt different measures and development models relying on local resources and their own advantages, a strict control of new emissions of pollutants and maintenance of healthy development of ecological water are of prime importance.
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