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王玉涛,潘建飞,黄翠翠,胡平,韩建林.东帕米尔高原喜马拉雅雪鸡遗传多样性及系统发育地位.生态学报,2018,38(1):316~324 本文二维码信息
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东帕米尔高原喜马拉雅雪鸡遗传多样性及系统发育地位
Genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Tetraogallus himalayensis in East Pamir, Xinjiang, China
投稿时间:2016-10-18  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201610182115
关键词东帕米尔高原  喜马拉雅雪鸡  mtDNA D-loop  遗传多样性  系统发育地位
Key WordsEast Pamir  Tetraogallus himalayensis  mtDNA D-loop  genetic diversity  phylogenetic status
基金项目新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金项目(2012211B29);新疆维吾尔自治区科技创新团队建设项目(2014751002);新疆维吾尔自治区高校科研计划项目(XJEDU20141036)
作者单位E-mail
王玉涛 喀什大学, 生命与地理科学学院, 喀什 844000;喀什大学新疆维吾尔自治区叶尔羌绿洲生态与生物资源研究高校重点实验室, 喀什 844000  
潘建飞 中国农业科学院-国际家畜研究所畜禽牧草遗传资源联合实验室, 北京 100073  
黄翠翠 喀什大学, 生命与地理科学学院, 喀什 844000;喀什大学新疆维吾尔自治区叶尔羌绿洲生态与生物资源研究高校重点实验室, 喀什 844000  
胡平 喀什大学, 生命与地理科学学院, 喀什 844000;喀什大学新疆维吾尔自治区叶尔羌绿洲生态与生物资源研究高校重点实验室, 喀什 844000  
韩建林 喀什大学, 生命与地理科学学院, 喀什 844000;喀什大学新疆维吾尔自治区叶尔羌绿洲生态与生物资源研究高校重点实验室, 喀什 844000;中国农业科学院-国际家畜研究所畜禽牧草遗传资源联合实验室, 北京 100073 h.jianlin@cgiar.org 
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摘要:
东帕米尔高原作为生物多样性丰富的区域之一,喜马拉雅雪鸡和藏雪鸡在此混群分布。以东帕米尔高原喜马拉雅雪鸡为研究对象,采用PCR和测序技术,研究了mtDNA D-loop区序列特征,下载GenBank已提交的雪鸡序列,利用最大似然法构建系统发育树和中介网络关系,以阐明东帕米尔高原喜马拉雅雪鸡遗传多样性水平和系统进化地位。结果表明:东帕米尔高原喜马拉雅雪鸡mtDNA D-loop序列富含A、T碱基,含量为59.8%,存在64个多态位点,占核苷酸总数的5.5%,其中单一多态位点29个,简约信息位点33个,两处插入或缺失,转换发生的频率远远高于颠换;25个个体存在23种单倍型,平均单倍型多样度(Hd)为0.92±0.0001,平均核苷酸多样度(π)为0.00958,平均核苷酸差异度(K)为11.067,说明东帕米尔高原喜马拉雅雪鸡核苷酸多样性较低,单倍型多样性高,具有较为丰富的遗传多样性;系统发育分析显示喜马拉雅雪鸡与藏雪鸡分为明显的两大簇群,本研究涉及的东帕米尔高原喜马拉雅雪鸡出现遗传分化,呈现明显的2个进化支;中介网络关系分析显示雪鸡具有明显的地理分布特征,本研究雪鸡84%的单倍型聚在以东帕米尔高原为中心的进化支上。因此,建议扩大塔什库尔干野生动物自然保护区(位于东帕米尔高原境内)范围,建立国家级自然保护区,恢复生态环境,以提高雪鸡栖息地的生存适宜性。
Abstract:
The Eastern Pamir Plateau is a region with highly abundant biodiversity in Xinjiang, China, where the distribution of Tetraogallus himalayensis (T.himalayensis)and Tetraogallus tibetanus(T.tibetanus) are found. In this study, the mtDNA D-loop gene sequences of the study organism, T. himalayensis, were sequenced and analyzed, Both haplotype networks and a phylogenetic tree based on the neighbor-joining and Maximum Likelihood methods were constructed to analyze genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of the species' Eastern Pamir Plateau population. The results indicated that A and T bases were rich in the mtDNA D-loop sequences at 59.8%. There were 64 mutation sites, accounting for 5.5% of all nucleotides, of which 29 were singleton variable sites, 33 were parsimony informative sites, and 2 were insertion/deletion sites. There were many more transitions than transversions. The average haplotype diversity (Hd) was 0.92 + 0.0001, the average nucleotide diversity (PI) was 0.00958, and the average nucleotide diversity (K) was 11.067.Overall, the nucleotide diversity of T. himalayensis in the Eastern Pamir Plateau was low. while haplotype diversity was high-demonstrating rich genetic diversity in the species. Through phylogenetic analysis, this study equally found that T.himalayensis and T. tibetanus are divided in two major clusters. T. himalayensis shows the greatest genetic differentiation, with 2 obvious evolutionary branches. Additionally, Snowcock (Tetraogallus spp.) exhibit a distinct geographical distribution, with 84% of T. himalayensis haplotypes in the Eastern Pamir Plateau being in unique evolutionary branches. Accordingly, it is recommended that the Tashkorgan Wild Animal Nature Reserve be expanded, and upgraded to the level of National Nature Reserve, in recognition of the ecological significance of the region and to support the protection and restoration of suitable Tetraogallus spp. habitat in the Eastern Pamirs.
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