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肖洋,张路,张丽云,肖燚,郑华,欧阳志云.渤海沿岸湿地生物多样性变化特征.生态学报,2018,38(3):909~916 本文二维码信息
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渤海沿岸湿地生物多样性变化特征
Spatial variation analysis of biodiversity in the Bohai region coastal wetland
投稿时间:2016-12-08  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201612082528
关键词渤海沿岸湿地  生物多样性  空间格局  变化特征  InVEST模型
Key WordsBohai region costal wetland  biodiversity  spatial patterns  variation characteristics  InVEST model
基金项目林业性行业科研专项资助项目(201404305)
作者单位E-mail
肖洋 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
张路 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
张丽云 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085;中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100039  
肖燚 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
郑华 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
欧阳志云 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 zyouyang@rcees.ac.cn 
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摘要:
全球气候变化和人类活动干扰的加强,对全球生物多样性造成了前所未有的干扰和破坏。近年来随着我国东部沿海的人口经济快速增长、资源需求进一步增大,生物多样性保护面临着巨大的挑战,进而影响地区经济和生态环境的可持续发展。在区域尺度上评估我国滨海湿地生态系统生物多样性空间格局及其变化特征,对于科学认识和合理保护滨海湿地生态系统生物多样性,和制定生态环境保护决策具有十分重要的意义。以渤海沿岸湿地生态系统生物多样性为研究对象,通过InVEST模型,和物种丰富度指数,评价了该地区生物多样性现状及其变化。结果表明:(1)渤海沿岸湿地生态系统主要以水库坑塘为主,其次为草本沼泽。在2000-2010年期间,渤海沿岸湿地生态系统总面积几乎不变,主要为草本沼泽和水库坑塘之间的转换。(2)湿地生物多样性较高的区域主要分布在辽东湾中部、渤海湾东南部和莱州湾西北部。由于城市化进展的加快,人类活动的干扰加强,近10年来,渤海沿岸湿地生境质量逐渐降低,生物多样性呈退化趋势。频繁的人类活动对该地区湿地生物多样性产生巨大的负面影响,应多建立自然保护区加以保护。(3)生物多样性变化热点区主要分布在渤海湾东南部和莱州湾西北部。冷点区域主要集中在渤海湾的中北部。在渤海湾东南部和莱州湾西北部的变化热点区内,生物多样性呈改善趋势,说明有效的生态系统转换和湿地保护区的建立,可以实现发展与保护共存,达到了双赢的效果。
Abstract:
Unreasonable use of biological resources by humans and climate change have negative impacts on biodiversity at a global scale. As a consequence of the rapid population growth, with its associated further demands, along the east coast of China in recent years, biodiversity protection is facing enormous challenges, which have huge impacts on the sustainable development of the regional economy and ecological environment. Coastal wetlands, with their highest biodiversity, are among the most important ecosystems. Human activities are major contributors to biodiversity loss and degradation of biological community structure. Wetland development and reclamation and its dynamics have an important impact on species habitat, population distribution, and biodiversity. Many researchers have attributed biodiversity loss in coastal wetlands to long-term human interference and widespread changes in land use and cover. However, recent studies have shown that human activities may improve the level of biodiversity in selected study regions across China. It is necessary to investigate current regional costal wetland status and its response to human activities, which will promote a better understanding of their accumulated consequences. On the basis of the biodiversity status in Bohai region costal wetland, we used an index of habitat quality and species richness as evaluation factors to calculate an index of biodiversity, and to analyze the hotspots or cold spots of biodiversity change via the method of spatial correlation. The results obtained were as follows. (1) The dominant ecosystem type in Bohai region costal wetland is reservoir and water pits, followed by grass swamp. There was almost no change in the total area of wetland ecosystem. However, internal change occurred in the form of transformation between reservoir and grass swamp from 2000 to 2010. (2) High biodiversity areas are mainly distributed in central Liaodong Bay, southeast of Bohai Bay, and northwest of Laizhou Bay. Because of the increasing rate of urbanization, and the growing interference of human activities in recent years, biodiversity in the Bohai region costal wetland is facing gradual deterioration, which has huge impacts on sustainable development of the regional economy and ecological environment. (3) The hotspots of biodiversity change are mainly distributed in the southeast of Bohai Bay and northwest of Laizhou Bay. The cold spots of biodiversity change are mainly concentrated in the north-central region of Bohai Bay. A trend of improvement in biodiversity was found in the southeast of Bohai Bay and northwest of Laizhou Bay, indicating that efficient ecosystem transformation together with establishment of wetland reserves could yield a win-win result.
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