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王新星,陈涛,李敏,王雪辉,王跃中.珠江西部河口中华白海豚分布与环境因子的关系.生态学报,2018,38(3):934~944 本文二维码信息
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珠江西部河口中华白海豚分布与环境因子的关系
Relationships between environmental factors and the distribution of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the western Pearl River Estuary, China
投稿时间:2016-12-22  
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201612222647
关键词中华白海豚  珠江西部河口  保护  目击率  广义加性模型
Key WordsHumpback dolphin(Sousa chinensis)  Pearl River Estuary, China  conservation  encounter rates  generalized additive model
基金项目农业部财政项目广东中华白海豚保护行动;中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金项目(2015TS06);世界自然(香港)基金会资助项目;中国水产科学研究院基本科研业务费资助项目(2014C01XK01)
作者单位E-mail
王新星 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所, 农业部南海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室, 农业部南海渔业资源环境科学观测实验站, 广州 510300  
陈涛 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所, 农业部南海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室, 农业部南海渔业资源环境科学观测实验站, 广州 510300 chent@scsfri.ac.cn 
李敏 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所, 农业部南海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室, 农业部南海渔业资源环境科学观测实验站, 广州 510300  
王雪辉 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所, 农业部南海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室, 农业部南海渔业资源环境科学观测实验站, 广州 510300  
王跃中 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所, 农业部南海渔业资源开发利用重点实验室, 农业部南海渔业资源环境科学观测实验站, 广州 510300  
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摘要:
2012年采用船基截线法在珠江口西部河口进行了中华白海豚(Sousa chinensis)调查,并同步对渔业资源和渔业环境要素进行了现场采样测定,以分析该水域中华白海豚空间分布与环境因子的关系。利用广义加性模型(GAM)分析了中华白海豚目击率与海况、水深、底层水温、盐度、pH值、溶解氧、游泳生物密度、捕食种密度和离岸距离等的关系。GAM模型对中华白海豚目击率分布的总偏差解释率为64.7%,游泳生物密度、水深、捕食种密度、离岸距离、底层水温等对中华白海豚的栖息地选择有较大的影响。模型分析结果显示:中华白海豚的活动与捕食种密度密切相关,但当捕食种密度达到一定程度时对海豚目击率的影响减弱,推测可能与食物较多时海豚逗留捕食时间减少有关;中华白海豚较为喜欢的水深在10m左右,这一模拟结果与以前的统计结果基本一致;中华白海豚对底层水温似乎有一定的选择性,当底层水温大于19.5℃时目击率明显下降,推测底层水温可能影响了捕食种鱼类的分布,进而影响海豚的活动;离岸距离3km范围内是中华白海豚较为喜欢的水域,因此对这一水域范围应给予重点保护管理。
Abstract:
The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is a small odontocete species that is widely distributed throughout inshore waters of the Indian and western Pacific oceans. This species is currently classified as "Near Threatened" by the IUCN in its red list of threatened species. The effective conservation of this species requires an understanding of the relationship between its populations and their habitats. The Pearl River Estuary contains one of the world's largest-known populations of this dolphin species; however, commercial development is extensively modifying the surrounding environment. Moreover, the region is densely populated, and the intensity of human activities, such as shipping and reclamation, are all increasing. The habitat of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin throughout the Pearl River Estuary is changing and life for the dolphins within it is becoming more complex. We used data collected during vessel-based line-transect surveys in 2012, augmented by data from nekton sampling by bottom trawls and environmental variables, to identify relationships between the environment and the distribution of S. chinensis in the western Pearl River Estuary. A total of 200 nekton species belonging to 81 families and 19 orders were collected during the four surveys. On the basis of humpback dolphin encounter rates, generalized additive models (GAM) were used to assess the relationships between dolphin encounters and nine environmental variables:Beaufort Sea state, depth, bottom water temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nekton density, prey species density, and distance to the shore. Nekton density, depth, prey species density, distance to the shore, and bottom water temperature were all significantly associated with dolphin encounter rate, and collectively explained 64.7% of the observed variance. GAM models revealed the habitat preferences of these dolphins. Along with an increase in nekton density, dolphin encounter rate fluctuated, initially increasing and then decreasing and increasing again. The reason for this observed pattern may be the proportion of dolphin prey in the nekton, indicating that prey density was not positively correlated with nekton density. Humpback dolphin distribution and prey density were closely related, although any effect of prey density decreased above a threshold level, suggesting that foraging time decreases in times of prey abundance. Water depth is considered to be a factor limiting the offshore distribution of humpback dolphins. We noted that humpback dolphins were more frequently observed in water depths of 10m, and this preference shown by dolphins for a certain water depth is the same as that recorded in other survey years. We also identified a relationship between dolphin encounter rates and bottom water temperature, with the encounter rates decreasing markedly when the bottom water temperature exceeded 19.5℃. It is likely that bottom temperature affects the distribution of prey species, which in turn influences the nature of dolphin distribution. Offshore distance is also an important factor determining dolphin distribution. With an increase in the offshore distance from 0.1 to 3km, the dolphin encounter rate increased monotonically with increasing distance. Thereafter, the encounter rate decreased monotonically when the offshore distance exceeded 3km. Because the preferred habitat of humpback dolphins occurs at a distance of less than 3km offshore, prioritized conservation of this environment would better protect and improve management of this increasingly threatened dolphin species.
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