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毛玉泽,李加琦,薛素燕,蔺凡,蒋增杰,方建光,唐启升.海带养殖在桑沟湾多营养层次综合养殖系统中的生态功能.生态学报,2018,38(9):3230~3237 本文二维码信息
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海带养殖在桑沟湾多营养层次综合养殖系统中的生态功能
Ecological functions of the kelp Saccharina japonica in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, Sanggou Bay, China
投稿时间:2017-03-16  修订日期:2017-12-13
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201703160444
关键词海带  生长  光合作用  氮营养盐吸收  生态功能
Key WordsSaccharina japonica  growth  photosynthesis  uptake characteristics of nitrogen nutrient  ecological function
基金项目中国水产科学研究院基本科研业务费项目(2017HY-ZD0608);国家自然基金委员会-山东省人民政府联合资助海洋科学研究中心项目(U1606404);中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所基本科研业务费资助(20603022017002,20603022017010);国家海洋局海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201305043)
作者单位E-mail
毛玉泽 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室, 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室, 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所, 青岛 266071
海洋国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室, 青岛 266071 
 
李加琦 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室, 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室, 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所, 青岛 266071
海洋国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室, 青岛 266071 
 
薛素燕 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室, 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室, 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所, 青岛 266071
海洋国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室, 青岛 266071 
 
蔺凡 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室, 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室, 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所, 青岛 266071
海洋国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室, 青岛 266071 
 
蒋增杰 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室, 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室, 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所, 青岛 266071
海洋国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室, 青岛 266071 
 
方建光 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室, 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室, 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所, 青岛 266071
海洋国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室, 青岛 266071 
 
唐启升 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室, 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室, 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所, 青岛 266071
海洋国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室, 青岛 266071 
tangqs@public.qd.sd.cn 
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摘要:
采用现场和实验生态学方法研究了大型经济海藻——海带(Saccharina japonica)的生长、光合作用和氮营养盐的吸收特性。实验结果表明:在1个生长周期内(约200d),海带的湿重与养殖天数呈明显的幂函数(W=1.3886 t1.362R2=0.9611),海带湿重是长度的幂函数(W=0.0071 L2.0882R2=0.9392);海带的光合作用放氧速率(O2 mg/h)与湿重(g)具有明显的线性相关(R2范围为0.950-0.981),直线斜率(反应单位时间单位重量光合作用放氧速率)的变化范围为0.096-0.195(平均0.191),养殖初期单位鲜重的光合放氧能力较弱,后期趋于稳定;不同部位海带藻片对TIN的吸收速率不同,中带部上部(60-110cm)和基部(20-50cm)的吸收速率大于中带部下部(150-200cm)和边缘部,氮饥饿后最初0.5-1h对TIN的吸收速率最高(0.6μmol/g WW),培养24h可去除介质中TIN(初始浓度24.2μmol/L,密度4g/L)的64.2%-97.1%,10℃条件下藻片对营养盐的吸收率和去除率均大于4℃。海带藻片对NO3-N的吸收速率大于对NH4-N的吸收速率,24h后对NO3-N的收速率趋于稳定。结果显示,海带具有较高的生长速度、光合作用产氧和营养盐吸收能力。海带养殖后期,每天可以增加氧气28.8g/m2(光周期按14h计算),收获时海带的平均碳氮含量分别为33.1%和1.8%,以桑沟湾海带养殖产量8.45万t计算,每年可移除2.8万t碳和1538t氮,海带在多营养层次综合养殖系统中具有较高的生态功能。
Abstract:
The growth rate, photosynthetic activities, and nitrogen nutrient uptake characteristics of cultured commercial kelp (Saccharina japonica) were studied in situ and under laboratory conditions. The lengths of marked kelps were measured every 10 to 20 days throughout their entire life cycle by collecting 5-10 individuals for simultaneous weight measurement. The in-situ seaweed was incubated in high light transmission polyethylene tubes (the perimeter of the tube was 25-50cm; light transmittance was above 80%) suspended in the kelp farming area, and the photosynthetic oxygen production rate at different growth stages was measured in January, March, May, and July. In the laboratory, the total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) uptake rate was measured for discs taken from different parts of the kelp under two temperature treatments of 4℃ and 10℃. The NH4-N and NO3-N selective uptake characteristics of the discs were also measured. The results showed that the wet weights are power functions that are related to both culture days (W=1.3886 t1.362, R2=0.9611) and kelp length (W=0.0071 L2.0882, R2=0.9392) during the culture period. There was a clear positive linear correlation (R2 ranged from 0.950 to 0.981) between the oxygen production rate (O2 mg/h) and the wet weight (g), and the slope (related to the photosynthetic oxygen production rates of the kelp by unit time and unit fresh wet) varied from 0.096 to 0.195 with an average of 0.191. The oxygen production rate in unit fresh weight was lower at the first growth stage (January), but gradually increased and became stable after March. The TIN uptake rate varied between different parts of the kelp. The uptake rates of the upper part of the middle band (60-110cm) and the base of the plant (20-50cm) were faster than the lower part of the middle band (150-200cm) and the marginal part of the plant. The highest TIN uptake rate was observed between 0.5 and 1 hour after nitrogen starvation, and about 64.2% to 97.1% of the TIN in the culture medium (initial concentration was 24.2μmol/L and the kelp density was 4g/L) was removed within 24 hours. The TIN uptake and removal rate of the tested kelp incubated at 10℃ was higher than that at 4℃. The NO3-N uptake rate of the kelp discs was higher than for NH4-N, and became stable after 24 hours. The results demonstrated that the kelp has a relatively high growth rate, nutrient uptake rate, and active photosynthetic activities, which means it has valuable ecological functions as a farmed species.
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