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孙岩,何明珠,王立.降水控制对荒漠植物群落物种多样性和生物量的影响.生态学报,2018,38(7):2425~2433 本文二维码信息
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降水控制对荒漠植物群落物种多样性和生物量的影响
Effects of precipitation control on plant diversity and biomass in a desert region
投稿时间:2017-03-29  修订日期:2017-11-09
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201703290549
关键词降水控制  极端干旱  荒漠植被  物种多样性  生物量
Key Wordsprecipitation control  extreme drought  desert vegetation  species diversity  biomass
基金项目国家自然科学基金(41671103);宁夏交通建设管理局项目(WMKY1)
作者单位E-mail
孙岩 甘肃农业大学林学院, 兰州 730070  
何明珠 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院沙坡头沙漠试验研究站, 兰州 730000  
王立 甘肃农业大学林学院, 兰州 730070 wangli@gsau.edu.cn 
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摘要:
在全球气候变化背景下,干旱和极端降水事件将对荒漠区植物群落物种多样性和生产力产生深远影响,研究植物群落应对降水变化的响应机制对于荒漠生态系统的科学管理具有重要意义。通过人工增减雨措施利用遮雨棚和滴灌技术对研究区的降水量进行人为调控,探究极端干旱、干旱和降水增加等条件对荒漠植物群落物种多样性和生物量的影响。结果表明:经过一年的降水控制处理,发现灌木和草本层片物种多样性指数在极端干旱、干旱和降水增加等试验处理中差异不显著;灌木的生物量对不同降水控制条件的响应也不显著,而草本层片地上生物量对降水变化的响应最为明显,并随着降水量的增加呈线性增长趋势,极端干旱处理(D1)条件下草本生物量为(10.54±2.36)g/m2,当降水增加50%(W1)后,草本生物量可达到(105.69±28.60)g/m2;草本地上生物量与土壤浅表层(40cm)的含水量之间显著相关(P < 0.05),草本层片生物量与短期(一年)降水波动显著相关。通过定位控制试验进一步探究长时间序列降水变化如何作用于荒漠植物群落特征,研究结果对全球气候变化背景下荒漠生态系统响应机制方面的研究提供数据和理论支撑。
Abstract:
In the context of global climate change, drought and extreme precipitation events will have far-reaching influences on species diversity and productivity of desert plant communities. Studying response mechanisms of plant communities to precipitation fluctuations is of great significance for the scientific management of desert ecosystems. By using rain shelters and drip irrigation systems to control precipitation input, this study evaluated the effects of extreme drought (decreasing precipitation by 50%, D1 treatment), drought (decreasing precipitation by 25%, D2 treatment) and increasing precipitation (increasing precipitation by 50%, W1 treatment; increasing precipitation by 25%, W2 treatment) on species diversity and biomass of desert plant communities. After one-year precipitation control experiments, we found that there was no significant difference in shrub and grass diversity indices, nor shrub biomass, under D1, D2, W1 and W2 treatments. The above-ground biomass of grass layers was sensitive to the precipitation changes. Grass biomass was (10.54±2.36) g/m2 under D1 treatment, in contrast, grass biomass reached (105.69±28.60)g/m2 with 50% precipitation enhancement (W1 treatment). Grass biomass showed a linear increasing trend with precipitation enhancement and was significantly correlated with soil water content of the shallow layer (40cm depth, P < 0.05). Therefore, biomass of grass layers were closely related to short-term (one year) precipitation fluctuations. Based on long-term location experiments, this study will further explore the effects of precipitation change on desert plant community characteristics, the results of which will provide data and theoretical support for response mechanism studies of desert ecosystems against the background of global climate change.
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