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张丹丹,张丽梅,沈菊培,旺姆.珠穆朗玛峰不同海拔梯度上土壤细菌和真菌群落变化特征.生态学报,2018,38(7):2247~2261 本文二维码信息
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珠穆朗玛峰不同海拔梯度上土壤细菌和真菌群落变化特征
Soil bacterial and fungal community succession along an altitude gradient on Mount Everest
投稿时间:2017-04-13  修订日期:2017-11-20
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201704130657
关键词海拔  细菌  真菌  多样性  PLFA
Key Wordsaltitude  bacteria  fungi  diversity  PLFA
基金项目科技部"973"资助项目(2013CB956300)
作者单位E-mail
张丹丹 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 城市与区域国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
张丽梅 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 城市与区域国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
沈菊培 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 城市与区域国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
旺姆 西藏农牧学院, 林芝 860000 wangmutb@163.com 
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摘要:
高寒生态系统是全球变化的敏感区域,揭示高海拔地区尤其是雪线以上土壤微生物群落的演变规律,对于理解全球气候变化对高寒生态系统的影响及其响应机制具有重要意义。以采自青藏高原珠穆朗玛峰北坡低海拔地区和永久雪线以上(海拔4000-6550m)的12份土壤和砂砾样品为研究对象,运用活菌计数法(CFU)和实时定量PCR(real-time PCR)技术对土壤样品的细菌和真菌进行了定量分析,并结合磷脂脂肪酸(PLFA)分析法、变性梯度凝胶电泳技术(DGGE)和克隆测序方法研究了细菌和真菌群落随海拔梯度变化的演变特征,结果表明:土壤细菌和真菌丰度随海拔增加而降低,与海拔高度呈显著负相关;磷脂脂肪酸分析结果表明不论是细菌、真菌还是总的微生物PLFA含量均随海拔高度增加而下降,革兰氏阴性细菌和革兰氏阳性细菌的多样性也随海拔增加而降低,且代表革兰氏阳性细菌的PLFA组份在雪线(5350m)以上检测不到,而代表革兰氏阴性细菌和真菌的组份在所有海拔梯度上都有分布,表明革兰氏阳性细菌比阴性细菌和真菌对海拔及海拔相关因子变化更为敏感。DGGE图谱的UPGMA聚类分析的结果也发现在不同海拔高度样品中细菌群落组成发生明显变化,但真菌群落变化不明显。测序分析结果显示变形菌纲(Proteobacteria)是珠峰不同海拔高度土壤/砂砾样品中的优势菌群,芽单胞菌(Gemmatimonadetes)是高海拔样品中的优势菌群,而放线菌(Actinobacteria)主要分布在低海拔样品中;真菌以子囊菌门(Ascomycota)为主,而丝足虫类(Cercozoa)原生生物是高海拔冰雪覆盖样品所特有的真核生物。
Abstract:
Alpine ecosystems are special regions and are sensitive to global climate change. Revealing the succession of microbial communities along the altitude gradients, especially above the permanent snow line, is essential to understanding the influence of global climate change on the alpine ecosystem and the climate feedback of the alpine ecosystem. In this study, the abundance and community composition of bacteria and fungi in 12 soil and gravel samples collected from the northern slope of the Mount Everest (Tibetan Plateau) along an altitude gradient varying between 4000 and 6550m (above sea level, m.a.s.l.) were characterized by viable counting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), combined with clone sequencing. The results showed that both the viable count and rRNA gene abundance for bacteria and fungi decreased with increasing altitude. The PLFA analysis showed that the contents and diversity of bacterial, fungal, and total PLFA reduced with increasing altitude. Furthermore, none of the PLFA components representing gram-positive bacteria were detected in samples above snow line (5350m), but some PLFA components representing gram-negative bacteria and fungi were distributed in all samples for low and high-altitude areas, which suggested that gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the changes in altitude and altitude-dependent environmental variables. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) analyses of the DGGE profiles showed distinct clustering in the low-altitude (4000m) and high-altitude (≥ 5350m) samples for bacteria communities, but not for fungal communities. The DGGE band sequencing results suggested that Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria in all samples, and that Gemmatimonadetes were dominant in higher altitude samples, whereas Actinobacteria were mainly found in lower altitude samples. Fungal DGGE band sequencing showed that Ascomycota predominated across the altitude gradient, whereas Cercozoa protists, identified by the fungal 18S rRNA gene primer, were only found in relatively higher altitude samples.
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