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陈敏敏,刘志刚,黄杰,连玉喜,杨晓鸽,于道平.固化河岸对长江江豚栖息活动的影响.生态学报,2018,38(3):945~952 本文二维码信息
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固化河岸对长江江豚栖息活动的影响
Effects of artificial riverbanks on distribution of the Yangtze finless porpoise in the Anqing section of the Yangtze River main stem
投稿时间:2017-07-22  修订日期:2017-10-24
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201707221316
关键词长江江豚  栖息地选择  固化河岸  自然河岸
Key WordsNeophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis  habitat selection  artificial riverbank  natural riverbank
基金项目香港海洋公园保育基金(AW05_1617)
作者单位E-mail
陈敏敏 水生生物保护与水生态修复安徽省高等学校工程技术研究中心, 安庆师范大学生命科学学院, 安庆 246133  
刘志刚 水生生物保护与水生态修复安徽省高等学校工程技术研究中心, 安庆师范大学生命科学学院, 安庆 246133  
黄杰 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 中国科学院水生生物多样性与保护重点实验室, 武汉 430072  
连玉喜 水生生物保护与水生态修复安徽省高等学校工程技术研究中心, 安庆师范大学生命科学学院, 安庆 246133  
杨晓鸽 水生生物保护与水生态修复安徽省高等学校工程技术研究中心, 安庆师范大学生命科学学院, 安庆 246133  
于道平 水生生物保护与水生态修复安徽省高等学校工程技术研究中心, 安庆师范大学生命科学学院, 安庆 246133 ahyudp@126.com 
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摘要:
长江江豚主要栖居在近岸浅水水域,喜好泥沙质类型的河岸。但在长江干流,有很多自然河岸被固化,河岸固化给长江江豚分布和栖息活动造的影响仍不甚清楚。2016年3月-2017年1月,对长江干流2个自然河段江豚的数量和分布做了12次考察,并收集了这2个河段岸型的相关数据,来分析固化河岸对江豚栖息活动的影响。12次考察累计发现江豚215头次,平均每次考察观察到江豚(17.92±7.09)头次。研究区域的固化河岸约占岸线总长的59%,分析发现,仅约13.9%的江豚分布在固化河岸水域,86.1%的江豚均分布在自然河岸水域。江豚在单位河岸长度的分布数量与该段固化河岸长度所占的比例呈显著负相关(r=-0.639,P<0.01)。在自然河岸,分布在近岸50 m水域的江豚占31.8%,而在固化河岸,仅观察到2头江豚活动在近岸50 m水域内。由此可见,固化河岸对江豚的近岸分布有明显影响。调查还发现,安庆城区建设带约10 km江段12次考察均未发现江豚分布,城区建设带可能对江豚栖息已造成严重影响。长江干流的固化河岸所占比例非常高,研究结果提示这可能导致长江干流江豚栖息地的丧失和破碎化加剧,在制定长江江豚保护措施必需慎重考虑此因素的影响,并据此提出相应的栖息地保护和恢复方案。
Abstract:
The critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise inhabits areas in the near-shore shallow waters, and particularly prefers areas with natural muddy or sandy riverbanks. However, a considerable stretch of the natural riverbank of the Yangtze main stem has been replaced by artificial riverbanks since the 1990s, such as rocky and dock banks. Artificial riverbanks appear to cause destructive effects on the ecological environment of the Yangtze river. However, the effects of artificial riverbanks on the Yangtze finless porpoise remain largely unknown. In this study, twelve consecutive surveys were conducted in two nature reaches of the Yangtze River (~57 km) from March 2016 to January 2017. The data recorded included abundance and distribution patterns of the Yangtze finless porpoise, and the styles of the riverbank. A total of 215 porpoises were sighted during the twelve surveys, with a range of 9-32 per survey. The average number of porpoises was 17.92±7.09 individuals per survey. No significant difference was found in the number of porpoises observed in different seasons (P>0.05). The total the artificial riverbank per 3 km (r=-0.639, P<0.01). In the natural riverbank, 31.8% of the porpoises were sighted within 50 m in-shore. However, in the artificial riverbank, only two porpoises were sighted within 50 m in-shore. These findings may suggest that the artificial riverbank has caused habitat loss and fragmentation for the Yangtze finless porpoise. This factor should be considered when drawing up measures to conserve and restore the continuity of the Yangtze finless porpoise habitat.
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