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殷宝法,淮虎银,张镱锂,周乐,魏万红.青藏铁路、公路对野生动物活动的影响.生态学报,2006,26(12):3917~3923 本文二维码信息
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青藏铁路、公路对野生动物活动的影响
Influence of Qinghai-Tibetan railway and highway on wild animal's activity
投稿时间:2005-08-11  最后修改时间:2006-01-05
DOI:
关键词青藏铁路  野生动物通道  交通运输  野生动物
Key WordsQinghai-Tibetan railway  wildlife passageways  traffic  wild animals
基金项目
作者单位
殷宝法 扬州大学生物科学与技术学院, 扬州 225009 
淮虎银 扬州大学生物科学与技术学院, 扬州 225009 
张镱锂 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
周乐 扬州大学生物科学与技术学院, 扬州 225009 
魏万红 扬州大学生物科学与技术学院, 扬州 225009 
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摘要:
2003年8月和2004年8月,在不冻泉保护站(35°17′N; 93°16′E)至五道梁(35°13′N; 93°04′E)一带调查青藏公路的运营和青藏铁路的建设对野生动物活动的影响,并分析了野生动物对青藏铁路上所建立的动物通道的利用情况。结果表明,青藏铁路的建设增加了青藏公路的交通运输量,青藏公路在铁路修建期间会对藏羚羊(Pantholops hodgsoni)、藏原羚(Procapra picticaudata) 和藏野驴(Equus kiang)的活动产生部分影响。同时,野生动物通过自身的适应和行为调节可以减少环境改变产生的影响,如公路两侧动物的活动高峰正好是公路上车流量较少的时段、动物可以利用野生动物通道来通过青藏铁路等。藏野驴、藏羚羊与藏原羚均可利用通道穿越铁路,而藏羚羊对通道的利用频次和通道到公路的距离显著的正相关(p<0.5),大多数的动物通道因其高度、宽度和到公路的距离以及人类活动等因素的影响而不能被动物利用。总的看来,动物能够通过自己的适应和行为调节,可以适应青藏铁路修建对该地区的环境所带来的变化。
Abstract:
Roads, especially large highways and railways can have a significant impact on wildlife movement and survival. These roads not only separate the previously connected areas of habitat, but they also create barriers that cumbersome wildlife movement between patches, particularly for large mammals, such as ungulates. Some of these impacts could be mitigated if wildlife can find and utilize passageways under highways and railways. The effect of traffic and railway buildings on wild animal activities during day time along Qinghai-Tibetan highway between Budongquan(35°17′N; 93°16′E) to Wudaliang(35°13′N; 93°04′E) was studied in August 2003 and August 2004. Furthermore, passageways under Qinghai-Tibetan railway were monitored to determine association between probability and frequency of passageways and the distance to Qinghai-Tibetan highway and passageways dimension variables. The result showed that, the traffic during daytime had some effects on Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni), Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata), Kyang (Equus kiang) when they were passing the road, especially significant for Tibetan antelope. At the same time, they could habituate themselves to the changes of surroundings by learning and adjusting their behavior. Most of their activity took place in the morning in order to avoid the impacts result of traffic, and they also could find and utilize passageways under Qinghai-Tibetan railway. We found that the likelihood of utilization were significantly positive correlated with the distance to Qinghai-Tibetan highway. Passageways dimensions, surrounding habitat and human activities could influence themselves utilized by wild animal. Most passageways under Qinghai-Tibetan railway could not be effectively utilized by wildlife for their low length, low height or human activities. Anyway, wildlife could habituate themselves to the changes of surroundings owing to the Qinghai -Tibetan railway building by learning and adjusting their behavior.
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