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陈亚宁,李卫红,陈亚鹏,徐长春,张丽华.新疆塔里木河下游断流河道输水与生态恢复.生态学报,2007,27(2):538~545 本文二维码信息
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新疆塔里木河下游断流河道输水与生态恢复
Water conveyance in dried-up riverway and ecological restoration in the lower reaches of Tarim River, China
投稿时间:2006-03-08  最后修改时间:2006-12-31
DOI:
关键词断流河道,生态输水,生态恢复,塔里木河
Key Wordsdried-up riverway  ecological water conveyance  ecological restoration  Tarim River
基金项目
作者单位
陈亚宁 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011 
李卫红 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011 
陈亚鹏 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011 
徐长春 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011 
张丽华 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011 
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摘要:
结合塔里木河下游输水过程中对9个地下水监测断面、18个植被样地的实地监测资料,分析了塔里木河下游输水条件下的浅层地下水位变化和天然植被的响应和恢复情况。研究结果表明,塔里木河下游输水有效地抬升了河道两侧的地下水位由输水前的6~8m抬升到了2~4m。在横向上,地下水位对输水的响应范围达到850m,胡杨和柽柳对地下水位变化的响应范围分别达到700和600m,但对草本植物的影响范围较窄,林间沙地活化现象仍未得到遏制。提出为扩大输水的生态效应和加快受损生态系统的恢复重建,应在目前沿自然河道“线型”输水的基础上,分段实施河水漫溢的面上供水方案,并通过加强流域水管理、推广农业节水技术和加大河道整治力度等措施,来确保塔里木河下游一定的生态用水量。
Abstract:
Based on the field data of groundwater table at nine sections and plants in eighteen sample plots, this paper analyses the change of groundwater table and the response and restoration of natural vegetation under the condition of water conveyance in the lower reaches of Tarim River. Results show that the water conveyance effectively lifted the groundwater table on both sides of riverway from 6-8m to 2-4m. In transverse direction the change of groundwater table responding to water conveyance reached as far as 850m, and affected Populus euphratica and Tamarix L. to 700m and 600m, respectively. However, the range of affected herbaceous plant was relatively close. The desertification process between forests has not been stopped. In order to maximize ecological benifits of water conveyance and accelerate the restoration of damaged ecology, it has been suggested that surface water conveyance be carried out by subsections in addition to the present practice of "linear watering" in natural riverway. Improving water management of the river basin, promoting the water-saving agricultural techniques, and augmenting the maitenance of riverway are among the measures useful to ensure the water supply for ecological restoration in the lower reaches of Tarim River.
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