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杨光梅,闵庆文,李文华,甄霖.我国生态补偿研究中的科学问题.生态学报,2007,27(10):4289~4300 本文二维码信息
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我国生态补偿研究中的科学问题
Scientific issues of ecological compensation research in China
投稿时间:2006-09-04  最后修改时间:2007-03-28
DOI:
关键词生态补偿  生态系统服务付费  涵义  理论依据  标准确定
Key Wordsecological compensation  payment for environmental/ecological services  connotation  theoretical basis  standard
基金项目
作者单位
杨光梅 上海市综合经济研究所, 上海 200032; 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
闵庆文 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
李文华 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
甄霖 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
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摘要:
我国生态补偿的研究始于20世纪80年代对生态学意义上生态补偿的探讨和经济学意义上生态补偿的摸索;联合国环境与发展大会后,进入主动的基于环境损失赔偿的理论探讨阶段;随着生态保护的加强、生态工程的实施以及保护和发展矛盾的加剧,生态补偿涵义拓展到对生态环境保护者进行补偿,进入理论和实践相结合的阶段,并成为国内社会各界的热点问题。但是目前生态补偿的涵义、理论依据和补偿标准等生态补偿研究的核心问题仍然存在不确定性。我国生态补偿涵义经历了从生态学意义到经济学意义的发展历程,目前阶段的生态补偿涵义与国际上的“生态系统服务付费”比较接近。理清生态补偿费与环境费、资源费的关系是生态补偿定位的关键,主要是确定与后者的包含或者补充关系;生态补偿的环境经济学理论来源是基本一致的,即环境外部成本内部化原理和公共物品理论,但是生态系统服务作为生态补偿的理论依据还存在基于效益补偿还是基于价值补偿的争论;生态补偿标准确定主要包括基于生态系统服务量化、成本(机会成本)或通过供需双方的博弈等方法,目前仍然处于探索阶段。上述科学问题是决定生态补偿实施的可行性和有效性的关键性问题,需要从我国的实际出发,从不同区域的现实出发结合理论探讨和实践需求进行研究,建议日后加强以下几个方面的研究:(1)与现实需求一致的生态补偿概念的确定和科学定位;(2)以现实有效性为基础的理论依据和补偿标准计算;(3)基于利益相关方多方参与的生态补偿机制研究;(4)生态系统服务研究与生态补偿研究的结合。
Abstract:
In China, researches on ecological compensation should be dated back to the 1980s’ when the discussions on ecological compensation in ecological and economic senses were initiated. Since the United Nation′s Conference on the Human and Environment in 1992, ecological compensation researches have entered into a phase of theoretical discussions on “damager pays” principle. With the implementation of ecological protection programs and the reorganization of conflicts between ecological protection and economic development, ecological compensation researches have paced into a phase of theoretical and practical discussions with special emphasis on “beneficiary pays” principle. Nowadays, ecological compensation has been a hot-spot in all walks of Chinese society. While the key scientific issues in ecological compensation research, such as connotation, standard, approach, implementation mechanism and theoretical basis, etc remains unsolved. Connotations of ecological compensation in China have been moving from emphasizing on ecological senses to economic senses. The clarification of the relationships between ecological fees, environmental fees and resource fees is a key for implementation of ecological compensation mechanism. It is recognized that the basic principle of environmental economics, or externality theory and public goods theory, could be considered as the basis for ecological compensation research. And the consideration of ecosystem services as the basis for compensation is dependent on the controversy of compensation for the benefits or for the values. Determination of eco-compensation standards is at its early stage, and the current research involves the elements such as quantitative assessment of ecosystem services, opportunity cost, demand and supply analysis, etc. The resolution of aforementioned issues is critical for ensuring feasibility and validity of eco-compensation mechanism and its successful implementation, which calls for integration of theoretical and practical researches with association of the Chinese situation and within regional specific challenges. The paper suggests that the future research should focus on, but not limited to, the following perspectives: (1) definition of terminology of ecological compensation with consideration of regional requirement; (2) study on theoretical basis and calculation of eco-compensation standard based on practical validity; (3) eco-compensation mechanism with participation of stakeholders; (4) integrated research on ecosystem service and ecological compensation mechanism.
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